Conrad Titles

J. H. Stape, Ed. The New Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 2015.

"The New Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad provides guidance to varied developments in the field of Conrad studies since the publication of The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad (1996). The volume's thirteen chapters offer diverse perspectives on emergent areas of interest, including canon formation, postcolonialism, gender, critical reception and adaptation. Likewise, chapters on Conrad's autobiographical writings, Heart of Darkness and "The Secret Sharer," consider recent trends in both literary and cultural studies. A chronology and an updated guide to further reading serve to provide essential orientation to a large and complex field. This volume is the ideal starting point for students new to Conrad's work as well as for scholars wishing to keep abreast of current issues. Essays by a major and emergent Conrad scholars are meant to offer authoritative insights into a complex and ever-evolving field."

J. H. Stape and John G. Peters, Eds. Conrad's “The Duel: Sources/Text. Rodopi, 2015.

Since the publication of Joseph Conrad's "Author’s Note" (1920) to A Set of Six (1908), readers have been aware that the plot for the Napolonic tale "The Duel" derived from an existing account. What has been unknown till now is the large number of venues in which that account variously appeared. This volume traces the tale's fascinating genealogy and the immediate contemporary source that inspired Conrad's 1907 story. A transcription of the story's typescript-manuscript sheds light on the story's development. Conrad’s "The Duel": Sources/Text will interest several readerships. Scholars engaged in historical and textual research can explore how Conrad drew upon, reworked, and transformed the story's sources. It is hoped that the relationships between the tale's initial draft and final form will interest scholars of genetic questions, and teachers of short fiction and of creative writing will find this an invaluable volume for exploring how source materials alter during the creative process.

Taner Can. (De)forming the Modernist Canon: Joseph Conrad and English Literary Modernism. Wisa, 2014.

"Can explores the prevailing problems of literary periodization and canon formation in the history of English literary modernism. In his survey of the development of modernist literary studies, he looks to demonstrate that the current conception fo English literary modernism and its established historical accounts are largely dominated by the exlusionary aesthetic perspective and restrictive critical assumptions that the early modernist writers deployed to define their art. Can seeks to redress this negative and marginalizing historiography of modernism through a reassessment of Joseph Conrad’s literary career and achievements."

William Freedman. Joseph Conrad and the Anxiety of Knowledge. University of South Carolina Press, 2014.

"Few if any writers in the English language have been cited, praised, chided, or marveled at more routinely than Joseph Conrad for the perplexing evasiveness, contradictoriness, and indeterminacy of their fiction. William Freedman argues that the explanations typically offered for these identifying characteristics of much of Conrad's work are inadequate if not mistaken. Freedman's claim is that the illusiveness of a coherent interpretation of Conrad's novels and shorter fictions is owed not primarily to the inherent slipperiness or inadequacy of language or the consequence of a willful self-deconstruction. Nor is it a product of the writer's philosophical nihilism or a realized aesthetic of suggestive vagueness. Rather, Freedman argues, the perplexing elusiveness of Conrad's fiction is the consequence of a pervasive ambivalence toward threatening knowledge, a protective reluctance and recoil that are not only inscribed in Conrad's tales and novels, but repeatedly declared, defended, and explained in his letters and essays. Conrad's narrators and protagonists often set out on an apparent quest for hidden knowledge or are drawn into one. But repelled or intimidated by the looming consequences of their own curiosity and fervor, they protectively obscure what they have barely glimpsed or else retreat to an armory of practiced distractions. The result is a confusingly choreographed dance of approach and withdrawal, fascination and revulsion, revelation and concealment. The riddling contradictions of these fictions are thus in large measure the result of this ambivalence, their evasiveness the mark of intimidation's triumph over fascination. The idea of dangerous and forbidden knowledge is at least as old as Genesis, and Freedman provides a background for Conrad's recoil from full exposure in the rich admonitory history of such knowledge in theology, myth, philosophy, and literature. He traces Conrad's impassioned, at times pleading case for protective avoidance in the writer's letters, essays, and prefaces, and he considers its enactment and its connection to Conrad's signature evasiveness in a number of short stories and novels, with special attention to The Secret Agent, Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Under Western Eyes, and The Rescue."

Omar Sabbagh. From Sight Through to In-sight: Time, Narrative and Subjectivity in Conrad and Ford. Rodopi, 2014.

"An interdisciplinary study of the Impressionist/early Modernist works of Conrad and Ford, this book aims to show how the represented temporalities (whether to do with past, present, future experience within and without the novels, or logical/structural relations of 'before' and 'after') are at the core of the won effects of both authors' oeuvres. Looking at such well-known works as Nostromo, The Good Soldier, The Fifth Queen, Parade's End, the study makes use of philosophy (historical and contemporary), theology, psychoanalysis, and other sources, to re-describe, unlock and display the fertile ways in which time and historical experience are both manumitted within the tales analysed, and, recursively, within their reading experience. Ultimately, the two senses of 'making you see', from Conrad's iconic Preface, are used as gambits to understand the ways in which these novels are metaphysically vibrant, symbolically hopeful--as against the more common interpretation of metaphysical dissolution and (over-determined) failure."

Athanasius A Ayuk. Joseph Conrad's Tragic Moral Paradoxes. L'Harmattan Cameroun, 2013.

"In this book, Ayuk raises issues of existential concerns in Conrad’s major fiction. In an age in which science and technology soared with success, it produced as its antithesis a tragic and complex humanity which this book clearly and coherently examines. Through close textual analysis, Ayuk seeks to bring out Conrad’s paradoxes in his portrayal of human experience: the struggle between individual ego and societal mores, guilt and conscience and loyalty betrayed. Joseph Conrad’s Tragic Moral Paradoxes considers Conrad’s moral and philosophical vision of humanity in the early 20th century but also the psycho-complexity of human experience of our day."

Vinaybhushan V. Deshmukhe. Fictional World of Joseph Conrad. Authorspress, 2013.

Wieslaw Krajka. From Szlachta Culture to the 21st Century, Between East and West: New Essays on Joseph Conrad's Polishness. East European Monographs, 2013.

"The volume opens with an appreciation of Conrad's Polishness by Jerzy Buzek, The President of the European Parliament. Its first section attempts to provide new illuminations of Polishness in Conrad's personality and oeuvre: from the szlachta cultural heritage of his ancestors and Polish contextualizations of 'Prince Roman' through some aspects of the writer's identity and references to Polish culture and autobiographical elements in his works to their Polish translations and reception. The Eastern-Western frame for these studies is provided by some relations of his literary works to Russian literature (Dostoevsky, Turgenev) and their reception in Ukraine and Germany. The essays represent various methodological approaches to studies in biography, historical-cultural contextualizations of literature, fact-and-fiction relationships, history of ideas, literary reception (documented surveys, translative and creative reception) and comparative literary criticism."

Wieslaw Krajka. Wine in Old and New Bottles: Critical Paradigms for Joseph Conrad. Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Press, 2013.

"This volume presents a collection of traditional and modern critical approaches to Joseph Conrad's oeuvre, ranging from biographical and autobiographical studies to literary comparisons with John Milton, Herman Melville, James Joyce, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and Cormac McCarthy; from postcolonial and Marxist analyses to reader-response, intertextual, and archetypal criticism. Some pieces incorporate the theoretical-philosophical insights of Josiah Royce, Sigmund Freud, and Jacques Lacan; others consult Jacques Derrida, Homi Bhabha, and Slavoj Zizek. Apart from Conrad's life and its reflection in his writings, these essays consider such thematics as the critique of reality; nationalism; imperial evil; racism; landscape and truth; impressionism; psychological archetypes; doubling and defamiliarization; alienation and selfhood; the uncanny; imaginary identification and the real; ideology as specter; unconditional hospitality; the theory of whirling and veering; and academic teachings of Conrad, both their past character and future possibilities."

John G. Peters. Joseph Conrad’s Critical Reception. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

"Throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, Joseph Conrad's novels and short stories have consistently figured into--and helped to define--the dominant trends in literary criticism. This book is the first to provide a thorough yet accessible overview of Conrad scholarship and criticism spanning the entire history of Conrad studies, from the 1895 publication of his first book, Almayer's Folly, to the present. While tracing the general evolution of the commentary surrounding Conrad's work, Peters also evaluates Conrad's impact on critical trends such as the belles lettres tradition, the New Criticism, psychoanalysis, structuralist and post-structuralist criticism, narratology, postcolonial studies, gender and women's studies, and ecocriticism."

Mohammad El Sayed. Anomie in Joseph Conrad's Early Fiction. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing, 2013.

"The main objective of this book is to explore the concept of anomie in selected works by Joseph Conrad guided by Robert Merton's theory of anomie. The book focuses on Conrad's often neglected early fiction. The first part of the book discusses anomie as a lack of balance between the cultural goals of individuals and the institutional means set by society. The second part shows how far anomie can lead to the downfall of individuals as well as the destruction of societies. By doing so, the book aims to show that Conrad, though implicitly, directs the attention of his readers to positively examine the oppressive social norms that may lead to anomie. Both case studies present reasonable solutions that can modify the oppressive social elements that cause man's suffering in life. An understanding of these elements is an attempt to evade an inevitable clash between man and his society."

     Amar Acheraiou, ed. Joseph Conrad and the Orient. East European Monographs, 2012.

"Joseph Conrad and the Orient explores Conrad's perception and construction of the Orient in his Malay fiction. While it entertains a sustained dialogue with past and recent studies of Conrad's handling of colonial cross-cultural encounters, imperial ideology and race politics, this collection of original essays continues the debates on these key issues. The authors adopt a variety of critical and methodological perspectives--socio-political, anthropological, philosophical, postcolonial, poststructuralist, historical, and linguistic--in order to investigate the richness, complexity and multi-dimensional character of Conrad's work. Overall, these approaches seek to enlighten Conrad's deep engagement with the East, not only as a crucial source of fictional material, but also as a polyphonic discursive space, a cultural and racial Other, an ideological construct, and a site of Western struggle for global commercial hegemony and native anti-colonial resistance."

    Brian Artese. Testimony on Trial: Conrad, James, and the Contest for Modernism. University of Toronto Press, 2012.

"Who is a more authoritative source of information--the person who experiences it firsthand, or a more 'impartial' authority? In the late nineteenth century, testimony became a common feature of literary works both fact and fiction. But with the rise of new journalism, the power of testimony could be undermined by anonymous, institutional voices--a Victorian subversion which continues to this day. Testimony on Trial examines the conflicts over testimony through the eyes of two of its major combatants, Joseph Conrad and Henry James. Brian Artese finds a direct inspiration for "Heart of Darkness" in the anti-testimonial scheming of Henry Morton Stanley and the New York Herald. Through readings of works including Lord Jim and The Portrait of a Lady, Artese seeks to demonstrate how the cultural conditions that worked against testimony fed into a nascent conflict about the meaning of modernism itself."

     Robert Hampson. Conrad’s Secrets. Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.

"Conrad’s Secrets explores various secrets relevant to Conrad’s fiction--trade secrets, sexual secrets, urban secrets, medical secrets and naval secrets. It seeks to recovers lost or less familiar areas of knowledge as necessary contexts for that fiction--Malay trade, Victorian anarchism, policing in Victorian London, financial and sexual scandals, for example--and attempts to show how these form part of the texture of Conrad’s work. Conrad’s Secrets advocates and enacts an historical formalist approach that, among other things, looks to show how Conrad’s Malay tales are differentiated from adventure romance; that seeks to throw a new light on Conrad’s use of Marlow as narrator; that attempts to provide a thickly contextualized reading of The Secret Agent; and tries to recover a neglected aspect of Conrad’s writing career--as a writer of World War I fiction."

     Nidesh Lawtoo, ed. Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' and Contemporary Thought Revisiting the Horror with Lacoue-Labarthe. Continuum, 2012.

"With its innovative narrative structure and its controversial explorations of race, gender and empire, Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a landmark of 20th century literature. This book brings together leading scholars to explore the full range of contemporary philosophical and critical responses to the text. Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and Contemporary Thought includes the first publication in English of philosopher Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe’s essay, 'The Horror of the West', described by J. Hillis Miller as 'a major essay on Conrad’s novel. One of the best ever written.' In the company of Lacoue-Labarthe, leading scholars explore new readings of Conrad’s text from a multiplicity of theoretical perspectives, including deconstructive, psychoanalytic and postcolonial approaches"

Allan H. Simmons, et al., eds. Joseph Conrad: Contemporary Reviews. 4 vols. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Joseph Conrad: Contemporary Reviews looks to fill a significant void in Conrad scholarship. A resource both to Conrad specialists and to students of literary Modernism, this four-volume collection seeks to provide as complete as possible a view of the contemporary reception of the writer's works in the English-speaking world. The reviews cover all of Conrad's writings from Almayer's Folly (1895) to the posthumously published Last Essays (1926). The volumes also take into their purview the collaborations with Ford Madox Ford. Found here are evaluations by journalists as well as by creative writers, the latter including H. G. Wells, Katherine Mansfield, Walter de la Mare and Virginia Woolf. The volumes offer insights into early twentieth-century reviewing practices, the marketing of 'literary' fiction and the wide interest in such writing, as reviews of Conrad's work regularly appeared in provincial and colonial newspapers.”

     George Z. Gasyna. Polish, Hybrid, and Otherwise: Exilic Discourse in Joseph Conrad and Witold Gombrowicz. Continuum, 2011.

"Polish, Hybrid, and Otherwise examines the triple compact made by displaced authors with language, their host country, and the homeland left behind. It considers the entwined phenomena of expatriation and homelessness, and the artistic responses to these conditions, including reconstructions of identity and the creation of idealized new homelands. Conrad and Gombrowicz, writers who lived with the condition of exile, were in the vanguard of what today has become a thriving intellectual community of transnationals whose calling card is precisely their hybridity and fluency in multiple cultural traditions. Conrad and Gombrowicz's Polish childhoods emerge as cultural touchstones against which they formulated their writing philosophies. Gasyna claims that in both cases negotiating exile involved processes of working through a traumatic past through the construction of narrative personae that served as strategic doubles. Both authors engaged in extensive manipulation of their public image. Above all, Conrad and Gombrowicz’s narratives are united by a desire for a linguistic refuge, a proposed home-in-language, and a set of techniques deployed in the representation of their predicament as subjects caught in-between."

     Christopher GoGwilt. The Passage of Literature: Genealogies of Modernism in Conrad, Rhys, and Pramoedya. Oxford University Press, 2011.

"Joseph Conrad, Jean Rhys, and Pramoedya Ananta Toer are writers renowned for crafting narratives of great technical skill that resonate with potent truths on the colonial condition. Yet given the generational and geographical boundaries that separated them, they are seldom considered in conjunction with one another. The Passage of Literature unites the three in a comparative study that breaks away from traditional conceptions of modernism, going beyond temporal periodization and the entrenched Anglo-American framework that undergirds current scholarship. This study traces a trio of distinct yet interrelated modernist genealogies. English modernism as exemplified by Conrad's Malay trilogy is productively paired with the hallmark work of Indonesian modernism, Pramoedya's Buru quartet. The two novel sequences, penned years apart, narrate overlapping histories of imperialism in the Dutch East Indies, and both make opera central for understanding the cultural dynamic of colonial power. Creole modernism--defined not only by the linguistic diversity of the Caribbean but also by an alternative vision of literary history--provides a transnational context for reading Rhys's Good Morning, Midnight and Wide Sargasso Sea, each novel mapped in relation to the colonial English and postcolonial Indonesian coordinates of Conrad's The Shadow-Line and Pramoedya's This Earth of Mankind. All three modernisms--English, Creole, and Indonesian--converge in a discussion of the Indonesian figure of the nyai, a concubine or house servant, who represents the traumatic core of transnational modernism. Throughout the study, Pramoedya's extraordinary effort to reconstruct the lost record of Indonesia's emergence as a nation provides a model for reading each fragmentary passage of literature as part of an ongoing process of decolonizing tradition."

    Tamas Juhasz. Conradian Contracts: Exchange and Identity in the Immigrant Imagination. Lexington Books, 2011.

"This book treats Joseph Conrad's simultaneous interests in exchange, contracts, and the condition of displacement. The central hypothesis is that the novelist’s characters face the option of signing or rejecting what might, with some generalization, be called a social covenant. These individuals conduct a lonely or marginal existence and, to ease their isolation, they would like to (re)enter a community. For this reason, they are ready to contribute to larger collective causes and comply with those restrictions that social life, in its contractual aspect, requires. As Julia Kristeva puts it, 'The foreigner is the one who works,' yet engagement in transactions in order earn a social position is fraught with difficulties. In return for their contribution, these hard-working characters do not always receive the compensation that they had in mind, especially when their definition of companionship violates the boundaries of legality and social propriety. Their private, illicit interests are bound to clash with communal ones, and the ensuing negotiating, readjustment, or compromise-seeking either crush the individual party or result in a redefinition of the notion of contract. This link between exchange and displacement is explored in nine narratives. Just as the concept of exile is used in a broad, often metaphorical sense (ranging from characters who are actual migrants through individuals who occupy a marginal position within their native community to individuals who are caught between conflicting cultural-economic models), the trade or contractual alliance that can create, or at least promise, a sense of communal belonging and personal recognition is also manifold in its definition. Although it always includes, if to varying degrees, the transference of economic goods or entering a specific agreement, exchange is never limited to legal-material procedures. Instead, various emotional investments, sexual transactions, and narcissistic reciprocities supplement the representation of actual commerce, inviting critical ideas from economic anthropology, post-structuralism and Lacanian psychoanalysis."

     Robert P. McParland. Bloom's How to Write About Joseph Conrad. Blooms Literary Criticism, 2011.

     Leonard Moss. The Craft of Conrad. Lexington Books, 2011.

"Driven by his concern for the tortuous human pursuit of 'ideal values,' Joseph Conrad sometimes tells more than he shows. He indulged his talent for philosophical speculation, and critics usually follow that lead. They fix their attention on broad themes (imperialism, nihilism, etc.), with only passing reference to literary strategies. But fiction is not philosophy. This study, rather than rehash the 'big ideas' that preoccupy most commentators, focuses on technique, Conrad's ingenious variations on a recurring narrative plan animated by images mingling light with darkness and by exhilarating rhetoric. Paradox shapes the narrative plan, the images, and the rhetoric. The story 'design' unfolds a test of manhood with ironic consequences; characters oscillate between impulsive desires and elevated moral convictions, degrading the shadowy standard they desperately try to enact; the rhetoric proposes certainties and yet uncovers negations, vacillations, and contradictions. As one of Shakespeare's characters says, 'I would by contraries execute all things.' Appropriately, Conrad's images bring together, or alternate between, clarity and obscurity. The geographical settings are often exotic, but nature's most 'common everyday' visual facts, light and darkness, become the author’s chief pictorial reference. Conrad exploits the coupling of 'sunshine and shadows' not only as antagonists but also, surprisingly, as paradoxical partners. That coupling may be his most original artistic contribution."

     Kenneth B. Newell. Conrad's Destructive Element: The Metaphysical World-View Unifying Lord Jim. Cambridge Scholars Press, 2011.

"This book argues for a new interpretation of Joseph Conrad's novel Lord Jim based on readings from not only its published text but also its principal manuscript text. Newell argues that extensive use of the manuscript text has not been a feature of any other work on Lord Jim, and such use helps bring into focus a fixed pattern of meaning and an implicit unity that Conrad said the novel has. This result controverts not only postmodern critics, who say that the novel lacks any fixed pattern of meaning, but almost all critics since its publication, who have said that it lacks unity--specifically, that it separates into two halves, the Patna half and the Patusan half. However, Newell suggests that with the help of the manuscript text, a detailed interpretation extending over the whole of Lord Jim shows it to be a unified whole. As Conrad wrote to his publisher four days after completing the novel, it is 'the development of one situation, on one really from beginning to end.' Most recent Lord Jim criticism discusses the novel from a standpoint critical of the author and in epistemological terms, whereas the present book discusses it from a standpoint sympathetic to the author and in symbolic and metaphysical terms. The metaphysical question that pervades the novel and helps unify it is whether the 'destructive element' that is the 'spirit' of the Universe ahs intention--and, beyond that, malevolent intention--toward any particular individual or is, instead, indiscriminate, impartial, and indifferent. Depending (as a corollary) on the answer to that question is the degree to which the particular individual can be judged responsible for what he or she does or does not do. Newell sees variant responses to the question or its corollary are provided not only by several characters and voices in Lord Jim but also by a letter of Conrad's and by excerpts from works by Arthur Schopenhauer, Thomas Hardy, James Thomson ('B. V.'), and John Stuart Mill."

     Mallikarjun Patil. Indian Companion to Joseph Conrad. Authorspress, 2011.

     Katarzyna Sokolowska. Conrad and Turgenev: Towards the Real. East European Monographs, 2011.

"Conrad and Turgenev: Towards the Real offers a comparative analysis of Joseph Conrad's and Ivan Turgenev's output and focuses on their outlooks and ideas concerning art, personality, and history. The analysis is based on Conrad's and Turgenev's major novels such as Lord Jim, Nostromo, Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, ‘The Return,’ Victory, The Secret Agent and Rudin, Home of the Gentry, One the Eve, Fathers and Sons, Smoke, as well as selected novellas, short stories, essays and letters. The affinities and differences between the two writers are discussed within the framework of realism and modernism. Main problems addressed are the relation between reality and representation in the two author's major works; the concept of the self and its duality, and the pessimistic vision of history devoid of purpose. The study is intended to highlight the affinities between Conrad and Turgenev, to acquaint the readers with those aspects of Turgenev's output that form the context for Conrad's oeuvre, to trace the echoes of Turgenev's aesthetics and world view in Conrad's texts and to show how Conrad, a disciple of great realist masters, balanced his new modernist awareness against Turgenev who relies on the framework of realism."

    Agata Szczeszak-Brewer. Empire and Pilgrimage in Conrad and Joyce. University Press of Florida, 2011.

"Though they were born a generation apart, Joseph Conrad and James Joyce shared similar life experiences and similar literary preoccupations. Both left their home countries at a relatively young age and remained lifelong expatriates. Empire and Pilgrimage in Conrad and Joyce seeks to offer a fresh look at these two modernist writers, revealing how their rejection of organized religion and the colonial presence in their native countries allowed them to destabilize traditional notions of power, colonialism, and individual freedom in their texts. Throughout, Szczeszak-Brewer attempts to demonstrate the ways in which these authors grapple with the same issues--the grand narrative, paralysis, hegemonic practices, the individual's pilgrimage toward unencumbered self-definition--within the rigid bounds of imperial ideologies and myths. The result is an investigation of the writings of Conrad and Joyce and of the larger literary movement to which they belonged."

     Katherine Isobel Baxter. Joseph Conrad and the Swan Song of Romance. Ashgate, 2010.

"In the first critical study wholly devoted to Joseph Conrad's use of techniques associated with the literary tradition of romance, Baxter argues that Conrad's engagement with the genre invigorated his work throughout his career. Exploring the ways in which Conrad borrows from, alludes to, and subverts the tropes of romance, Baxter suggests that Conrad's ambivalent relationship with popular forms like the adventure novel is revealed in the way he uses romance conventions to disrupt narrative expectations and make visible ethical problems with Europe's colonial project. Baxter examines not only familiar novels like "Lord Jim" but also less-studied works such as "Romance" and "The Rover," using Robert Miles' model of the 'philosophical romance' to show that for Conrad, romance is also philosophically engaged with issues of ideology. Her study seeks to enable a new appreciation of the ways in which Conrad continued to experiment, even in his later fiction, and of the ethical import of that aesthetic experimentation."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Joseph Conrad (Modern Critical Views). New Edition. Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2010.

     Kausar Equbal. Joseph Conrad: His Mind and Work. Shipra Publications, 2010.

     Richard J. Hand. Disparate Horrors: Adaptation and Joseph Conrad. University of Glamorgan, Cardiff School of Creative & Cultural Industries, 2010.

     Pawel Jedrzejko, Milton Reigelman, Zuzanna Szatanik, eds. Hearts of Darkness: Melville, Conrad and Narratives of Oppression. M-Studio, 2010.

"Critical essays from Melville and Conrad scholars from around the world, including John T. Matteson, Sanford Marovitz, Laurence Davies, T. Walter Herbert, Arthur Redding, Paula Kopacz, Yuji Kato, and Rodrigo Andres."

     Paul Kirschner. Comparing Conrad: Essays on Joseph Conrad and His Implied Dialogues with Other Writers. Paul Kirschner, 2010.

     Barbara Handke. First Command: A Psychological Revading of Joseph Conrad’s “The Secret Sharer” and The Shadow-Line. Galda Verlag, 2010.

     Peter Lancelot Mallios. Our Conrad: Constituting American Modernity. Stanford University Press, 2010.

"Our Conrad is about the American reception of Joseph Conrad and its crucial role in the formation of modernism and American culture more generally. Although Conrad did not visit the country until a year before his death, his fiction served as both foil and mirror to America's conception of itself and its place in the world. Mallios rewrites modern American literary and cultural history through Conrad's estranging prism. In so doing, he avails himself of a wide range of sources that are meant to reveal the historical and political factors that made Conrad's work valuable to a range of prominent figures--including Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Richard Wright, Woodrow Wilson, and Theodore and Edith Roosevelt--and explores regional differences in Conrad's reception. He suggests that foreign-authored writing can be as integral a part of United States culture as that of any native. Arguing that an individual writer's apparent (national, gendered, racial, political) identity is not always a good predictor of the diversity of voices and dialogues to which he gives rise, this exercise in transnational comparativism participates in post-Americanist efforts to render American Studies less insular and parochial.”

     Richard Niland. Conrad and History. Oxford University Press, 2010.

"This book examines the philosophy of history and the subject of the nation in the literature of Joseph Conrad. It explores the importance of nineteenth-century Polish Romantic philosophy in Conrad's literary development, arguing that the Polish response to Hegelian traditions of historiography in nineteenth-century Europe influenced Conrad's interpretation of history. After investigating Conrad's early career in the context of the philosophy of history, the book analyses Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), and Under Western Eyes (1911) in light of Conrad's writing about Poland and his sustained interest in the subject of national identity. Conrad juxtaposes his belief in an inherited Polish national identity, derived from Herder and Rousseau, with a skeptical questioning of modern nationalism in European and Latin American contexts. Nostromo presents the creation of the modern nation state of Sulaco; The Secret Agent explores the subject of 'foreigners' and nationality in England; while Under Western Eyes constitutes a systematic attempt to undermine Russian national identity. Conrad emerges as an author who examines critically the forces of nationalism and national identity that troubled Europe throughout the nineteenth century and in the period before the First World War. This leads to a consideration of Conrad's work during the Great War. In his fiction and newspaper articles during the war, Conrad found a way of dealing with a conflict that made him acutely aware of being sidelined at a turning point in both modern Polish and modern European history. Finally, this book re-evaluates Conrad's late novels The Rover (1923) and Suspense (1925), a long-neglected part of his career, investigating Conrad's sustained treatment of French history in his last years alongside his life-long fascination with the cult of Napoleon Bonaparte."

     John G. Peters, ed. A Historical Guide to Joseph Conrad. Oxford University Press, 2010.

"Born to Polish parents in what is now known as the Ukraine, Joseph Conrad would become one of the greatest writers in the English language. With works like Lord Jim, The Nigger of the "Narcissus," and Heart of Darkness, he not only solidified his place in the pantheon of great novelists, but also established himself as a keen-eyed chronicler of the social and political themes that animated the contemporary world around him. The original essays assembled here by Peters showcase the abundance of historical material Conrad drew upon to create his varied literary corpus. Essays show how the author mined his early life as a sailor to pen gripping, realistic tales of nautical life while issuing scathing indictments of colonialism and capitalist cupidity in works like Almayer's Folly and Heart of Darkness. His unique sense of himself as an outsider is explored in relation to his pointed political novels that critiqued corruption and terrorism, most notably in Nostromo and The Secret Agent. In addition to his major works, essays consider Conrad's contributions as an innovative modernist and his unique role in the nineteenth-century literary marketplace. Complete with an up-to-date bibliography and illustrated chronology, A Historical Guide to Joseph Conrad provides a resource to the life and work of the major novelist."

     J. H. Stape and Ernest W. Sullivan II, eds. Conrad’s Lord Jim: A Transcription of the Manuscript. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2010.
"Written in 1899-1900, Lord Jim is one of the key works of literary Modernism. A novel of immense power, it has never been out of print, attracting readers for over a century and variously influencing the development of twentieth-century fiction. This page-by-page transcription of the surviving manuscript and fragmentary typescript offers a privileged glimpse into the writer's workshop, allowing a reader to follow closely the evolution of character, narrative technique, and themes. Accompanying the transcription of the novel (about half of which survives) are supplementary materials that contribute to the story of its history: a new transcription of "Tuan Jim" (the Ur-version of the opening chapters) and the draft version of Conrad's 1917 "Author's Note" to the novel. Conrad's Lord Jim: A Transcription of the Manuscript makes available for the first time material housed in far-flung archives and encourages genetic approaches to a work acclaimed for its polished style, virtuoso effects, and narrative complexity."

     Amar Acheraiou. Joseph Conrad and the Reader: Questioning Modern Theories of Narrative and Readership. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

"Joseph Conrad and the Reader is the first book fully devoted to Conrad's relation to the reader, visual theory and authorship. This study proposes new approaches to modern literary criticism and examines the limits of deconstructionist theories, introducing new theoretical concepts of reading and reception."

     Katherine Isobel Baxter and Richard J. Hand, eds. Joseph Conrad and the Performing Arts. Ashgate, 2009.

"Conrad's fiction is characterized by an enduring recourse to the performing arts for metaphor, allegory, symbol, and subject matter; however, this aspect of Conrad's non-dramatic works has only recently begun to come into its own among literary critics. In response to this seminal moment, Joseph Conrad and the Performing Arts offers an interdisciplinary forum for one of the most interesting and nascent areas of Conrad studies. Adopting a variety of theoretical approaches, the contributors examine major and neglected works within the context of the performing arts: cultural performance in Conrad's 'Malay' fiction; Conrad's use and parody of popular traditions such as melodrama, 'Grand-Guignol,' and commedia dell'arte; Conrad's engagement with the visual culture of early cinema; Conrad's interest in the motifs of shadowgraphy (shadow plays); Conrad's relationship to Shakespeare; and the enduring influence of opera on his work. Taken together, the essays look to provide, through solid scholarship and richly provocative speculation, new insight into Conrad's oeuvre, and invite future dialogue in the burgeoning field of Conrad and the performing arts."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Heart of Darkness: Bloom's Guides. New York: Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2009.

"Joseph Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' is not simply a critique of colonialism in the Congo, but it is an examination of the human tendency toward self-endangering corruptibility. This updated collection of critical essays suggests that this resonant work has taken on the power of myth. This study guide to 'Heart of Darkness' also features an annotated bibliography and a listing of other works by the author."

    Fausto Ciompi, ed. One of Us: Studi inglesi e conradiani offerti a Mario Curreli. Edizioni ETS, 2009.

"A lengthy collection of essay on Conrad's life and works, some in English and some in Italian, by such scholars as Robert Hampson, Andrzej Busza, Jeremy Hawthorn, Laurence Davies, and Cedric Watts."

     Michael John DiSanto. Under Conrad's Eyes: The Novel as Criticism. McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009.

"Joseph Conrad's novels are recognized as great works of fiction, but they should also be counted as great works of criticism. A voracious reader throughout his life, Conrad wrote novels that question and transform the ideas he encountered in non-fiction, novels, and scientific and philosophic works. Under Conrad's Eyes looks at Conrad's revaluations of some of his important nineteenth-century predecessors--Carlyle, Darwin, Dickens, George Eliot, Dostoevsky, and Nietzsche. Detailed readings of works from 'Heart of Darkness' to Victory explore Conrad's language and style, focusing on questions regarding the will to know and the avoidance of knowledge, the potential harmfulness of sympathy, and the competing instincts for self-preservation and self-destruction. Comparative analyses show how Conrad transforms aspects of Bleak House into The Secret Agent and Middlemarch into Nostromo. Also included are explorations of Conrad's ambivalence towards Carlyle's faith in work and hero-worship as rejuvenators of English culture and his views on Nietzsche's assault on Christianity. This important new study of a novelist of profound contemporary relevance demonstrates how Conrad exemplifies the artist as critic while challenging both the categories we impose on texts and the boundaries we erect between literary periods."

     Linda Dryden, Stephen Arata, and Eric Masse, eds. Robert Louis Stevenson and Joseph Conrad: Writers of Transition. Texas Tech University Press, 2009.

"This book-length study specifically examines the many intersections in the works of Robert Louis Stevenson and Joseph Conrad and extends the focus of current debate beyond the writers' South Seas literature. Considering Stevenson and Conrad's shared literary history and experience of Victorian London, it examines their convergence of styles in the emergent modernism of the fin de siecle, their romance and adventure modes, their fictions of duality, and their exploration of the human psyche. Moreover, the book attempts to recuperate Stevenson's reputation as a serious writer, not only as Conrad's antecedent and influence but as a writer equally worthy of study in these shared modes."

     Wieslaw Krajka, ed. Joseph Conrad: Between Literary Techniques and Their Messages. East European Monographs, 2009.

"Thirteen contributors from a variety of backgrounds tackle the use of irony, contrast, narrative, themes of belonging, Englishness, imperialism, portrayals of women, and conceptions of truth and evil as they were expressed in the work of Joseph Conrad. Krajka expands Conrad criticism to explore the modernist's mastery of literary technique and his contribution to visions of humanity. Krajka's collection opens with two essays that explore the identity of Conrad, his characters, and his narrators, and then engages with the ideology, philosophy, and ethics of Conrad's fiction, especially the balance he strikes between literary technique and the meanings those techniques convey."

     John T. Nichol. Reader’s Guide to Joseph Conrad. Centrum Press, 2009.

     Ludwig Schauder. Free Will and Determinism in Joseph Conrad's Major Novels. Rodopi, 2009.

"This interdisciplinary study seeks to consider the philosophical debate about free will and determinism but also to consider the relevant historical, economic, scientific, and literary discourses in the Victorian and Early-Modernist periods. Against this background a paradigmatic analysis of three of Conrad's most significant novels--Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, and The Secret Agent--investigates the writer's position in the free will and determinism debate by identifying certain recurring themes in which the freedom-of-the-will problem manifests itself. It is hoped that light is thereby also thrown on a central Conradian paradox: how Conrad can insist on morality and moral responsibility, which presupposes the existence of free will, in a materialist-deterministic world, which denies it."

     Allan H. Simmons, ed. Conrad in Context. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

"Joseph Conrad's Polish background, his extensive travels and his detached view of his adopted country, Britain, gave him a perspective unique among English writers of the twentieth century. Combining Continental and British influences, Victorian and Modernist styles, he was an artist acutely responsive to his age, whose works reflect and chronicle its shaping forces. This volume examines the biographical, historical, cultural and political contexts that fashioned his works. Written by a specialist, each short chapter covers a specific theme in relation to Conrad's life and work: letters, Modernism, the sea, the Polish and French languages, the First World War, and many other topics. This book is directed toward scholars as well as to those beginning their study of this extraordinary writer. It seeks to show how this combination of different contexts allowed Conrad to become a key transitional figure in the early emergence of British literary modernism."

     Joanna Skolik. The Ideal of Fidelity in Conrad's Works. Adam Marszalek, 2009.

"For Polish general readers and scholars alike, Conrad's evident respect for the words solidarity and fidelity has resonated long and loud, suggesting as they do that his world, fiction and non-fiction alike, are imbued with values that are most fully understood by those who have Polish history and culture in their veins. Skolik shares this conviction, and, in spite of the extensive Polish (and indeed international) commentary already in existence, argues for something new to say about the concept of fidelity in general and its significance to Conrad's writings in particular. Rather than take the meaning of fidelity as self-evident, as it rather frequently has been in the critical literature, she starts by setting a wider philosophical context, drawing among other on Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, Durkheim, and Russell for a concentrated discussion of the moral values, and on Gabriel Marcel and Josiah Royce for their contributions to understanding the specific virtue of fidelity. This, so to speak, internationalisation of the subject works toward the effect not of blurring the Polish aspects of the idea but of offering a broader perceptive in which the national particularities shine all the more clearly."

     Harold Bloom, ed. d. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (Bloom's Modern Critical Interpretations). Blooms Literary Criticism, 2008.

"Critical essays reflecting a variety of schools of criticism--Notes on the contributing critics, a chronology of the author's life, and an index--An introductory essay by Harold Bloom."

     Ashley Chantler. Heart of Darkness: Character Studies. Continuum, 2008.

"Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness is one of the most important literary works of the early twentieth century. It has provoked much critical debate, on issues such as fin de siecle doubt and pessimism, European colonialism, racism, and misogyny. Engaging with the novel's characters is crucial to understanding its complexity and its critical history. This study includes an overview of the novel, including an account of its late nineteenth-century context discussions of the narrative structure and the narrators; chapters analyzing in detail the key characters in relation to the text's themes, issues and historical context; engagement with a range of literary criticism and theory; a conclusion reminding students of the potential of detailed character analysis and close critical reading; a guide to secondary texts and a bibliography."

 Gavin Griffiths. Joseph Conrad (Brief Lives). Hesperus Press, 2008.

"Born to Polish parents in the Russian-dominated Ukraine, Joseph Conrad led an extraordinary and adventurous life, much of which was spent at sea. This new biography charts his story, considering his writings in the light of his eventful experiences and is an introduction to the renowned and much-loved author of the 20th-century masterpiece 'Heart of Darkness.'"

     Tom Henthorne. Conrad's Trojan Horses: Imperialism, Hybridity, and the Postcolonial Aesthetic. Texas Tech University Press, 2008.

"Joseph Conrad remains one of the twentieth century's most widely discussed literary figures. And yet it may be that an abundant scholarship has pigeonholed Conrad as an early modernist. Henthorne counters that Conrad's work can be best understood in relation to that of such early twentieth-century writers as S. K. Ghosh and Solomon Plaatje postcolonialists who developed innovative ways of cloaking their anti-imperialism when working with British publishers. In Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, and his first short stories, Conrad attacks imperialism overtly. Yet as he began to work with more conservative publishers to acquire a larger, imperial audience, he developed a Trojan Horse strategy, deliberately obfuscating his radical politics through his use of multiple narrators, irony, free indirect discourse, and other devices that are now associated with modernism. Sensitive to the breadth of his prospective audience, Henthorne offers an engaging and accessible analysis of Conrad's canon, from the early novels and short stories to the major works, including The Nigger of the Narcissus, Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, and Nostromo. He also considers critical responses to Conrad and the influence Conrad has had upon modernist and postcolonial writers."

     Sanjeev Khanna. Joseph Conrad: His Mind and Art. Adhyayan Publishers, 2008.

"Joseph Conrad, Poland's English genius, remains a puzzle for both his biographers and critics. He stands at the transitional stage of the later Victorian and the early modern novelists. Conrad used obliquely the stream of consciousness device in his narrative pattern to infer the working of the mind of the protagonist to the reader. His multiple choice of narration constitutes the hear of his stories. The style chosen by him for delineating the protagonist's inherent search for self. As a non-native writer of English Conrad hardly feels a sigh of language for revealing the pangs of the heart, the psychological motives, and the realistic pattern of human behavior. This motive behind this book is to analyze the fictional art of Conrad for artistic and visionary purposes."

     Owen Knowles, ed. "My Dear Friend": Further Letters to and about Joseph Conrad. Rodopi, 2008.

"A sequel to A Portrait in Letters: Correspondence to and about Joseph Conrad (Rodopi, 1995), this volume collects and annotates letters to Joseph Conrad by his family, friends, admirers, and publishers. A companion to the writer's own letters, it intends to restore the quality of exchange, interaction, and debate that belongs to a major correspondence. It is also intended to lead to a fuller, more rounded picture of Conrad in his personal and professional dealings: both of the mutualities and rituals that underpinned his close friendships and of the terms underlying his mutual disagreements with others. Familiar names are here--Arnold Bennett, John Galsworthy, Edward Garnett, Ford Madox Ford, Bertrand Russell, and H. G. Wells--although in largely unfamiliar form, through unpublished or inaccessible materials. Another notable feature of the volume is the newly recovered correspondence relating to the implementation, by Henry Newbolt and William Rothenstein, of the Royal Bounty Fund grant awarded during one of Conrad's most severe financial crises (1904-06)." 

      Yael Levin. Tracing the Aesthetic Principle in Conrad's Novels. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

"Tracing the Aesthetic Principle in Conrad's Novels sets out to revolutionize our reading of Conrad's works and challenge the critical heritage that accompanies them. Levin identifies the emergence of an aesthetic principle in Conrad's novels and theorizes that principle through the concept of 'the otherwise present,' which Levin defines as that which provokes desire and perpetuates it by barring its appeasement. This book offers a detailed analysis of Lord Jim, Nostromo, Under Western Eyes, The Arrow of Gold and Suspense, alongside a poststructuralist-inspired explication of Conrad's literary vision and its defining principle."

     John G. Peters, ed. Conrad in the Public Eye: Biography / Criticism / Publicity. Rodopi, 2008.

"This is a collection of difficult-to-find and typically early commentary that sheds light on Conrad's life and works, as well as the way in which his works were promoted to the public. Selections include those by the American novelist Christopher Morley and the Irish novelist Liam O'Flaherty. Also included is a previously unpublished essay by Conrad's friend Richard Curle. Of particular interest are the promotional materials, which are collected together for the first time and reveal how Conrad was perceived by the general reading public and how he was marketed by his publishers."

     James Phelan, Jeremy Hawthorn, and Jakob Lothe, eds. Conrad: Voice, Sequence, History, Genre. Ohio State University Press, 2008.

"Joseph Conrad: Voice, Sequence, History, Genre argues that narrative theory, and especially some of its more recent developments, can help critics generate greater insight into the complexities of Conrad's work; and that a rigorous engagement with Conradian narrative can lead theorists to a further honing of their analytical tools. More particularly, the volume focuses on the four narrative issues identified in the subtitle, and it analyzes examples of Conrad's fiction and nonfiction, from early work such as An Outcast of the Islands to his late work of reminiscence, A Personal Record. The volume also provides multiple perspectives on major works such as Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim, a cluster of three essays on Nostromo and history, and an afterword by the editors that looks ahead to future work on the interrelations of Conrad and narrative theory. This collection brings together essays by established critics of Conrad and by leading narratologists that explore Conrad's innovative uses of narrative throughout his career. Collectively, these explorations by Daphna Erdinast-Vulcan, Gail Fincham, Jeremy Hawthorn, Susan Jones, Jakob Lothe, J. Hillis Miller, Zdzislaw Najder, Josiane Paccaud-Huguet, James Phelan, Christophe Robin, Allan H. Simmons, and John Stape investigate these issues."

     Richard Ruppel. Homosexuality in the Life and Work of Joseph Conrad: Love between the Lines. Routledge, 2008.

"Homoeroticism and Homosexuality in the Life and Fiction of Joseph Conrad examines the representations of homosexuality and homoeroticism in Conrad's fiction. Drawing on the work of Geoffrey Galt Harpham, Robert Hodges, Wayne Koestenbaum, Christopher Lane, and others who have already begun unearthing and analyzing this subject, the author traces Conrad's representations of homosexuality and homoeroticism, beginning with the Malay works and ending with The Shadow-Line. In Conrad's lifetime, the homosexual species came under increasing scrutiny, definition, and censure; same-sex desire was an increasingly contested issue within popular, legal, and medical discourses. Ruppel argues that Conrad's fiction traces this interest, though most often in subterranean ways."

     R. N. Sarkar. Conrad's Art: An Interpretation and Evaluation. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2008.

"A great novelist and short-story writer of the late nineteenth century, Joseph Conrad remains one of the most important literary figures of English literature. The present book is a compilation of critical articles of eminent writers deeply involved in studies on Conrad. By exploiting all major works of Conrad and also his critics who took interest in his art, the contributors have attempted to present an incisive and insightful analysis of Conrad's literary genius. His masterpiece 'Heart of Darkness' has been particularly studied with lucidity and profundity, and various elements like myth, loneliness, evil and racism contained in this well-knit work have been explored. Critical study of Conrad's political vision and myth is another attraction of the present book. In addition, it aims at probing into Conrad's sectarian penchant for his essentially literary perspective. It is hoped that the students and teachers of English literature and research scholars in fiction particularly those interested in the study of Conrad will immensely benefit from this book while the general readers too will find it interesting and enjoyable."

     Paul Wake. Conrad's Marlow: Narrative and Death in "Youth," "Heart of Darkness," Lord Jim, and Chance. Manchester University Press, 2008.

"Described as 'the average pilgrim' a 'wanderer,' and 'a Buddha preaching in European clothes,' Charlie Marlow is the voice behind Joseph Conrad's 'Youth,' 'Heart of Darkness,' Lord Jim, and Chance. Conrad's Marlow offers an account and critical analysis of one of Conrad's most celebrated creations, asking both who and what is Marlow: a character or a narrator, a biographer or an autobiographical screen, a messenger or an interpreter, a bearer of truth, or a misguided liar? Offering an investigation into the connection between narrative and death, this book argues that Marlow's essence is located in his constantly shifting position and that the emergence of meaning in his stories is bound up with the process of his storytelling."

     Agnes Swee Kim Yeow. Conrad's Eastern Vision: A Vain and Floating Appearance. Palgrave, 2008.

"This book traces the dialogic relation between Conrad's Eastern fiction and other histories and argues that it is precisely in the intersections of art and history that we locate Conrad's irony. The dialogism of Conrad's East resists any finalising meaning, and its loophole lies in subjective vision. Yeow suggests that, in a direct response to the visual culture of his times, Conrad sets up his fictional world as a hallucinated mirage even as he stresses the veracity of his own Eastern vision."

     D. Goonetilleke. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Routledge Guide. Routledge, 2007.

"Joseph Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness, has fascinated critics and readers alike, engaging them in highly controversial debate as it deals with fundamental issues of good and evil, civilisation, race, love and heroism. This classic tale transcends the boundaries of time and place and has inspired famous film and television adaptations emphasising the cultural significance and continued relevance of the book. This guide to Conrad's captivating novel offers an accessible introduction to the text and contexts of Heart of Darkness; a critical history, surveying the many interpretations of the text from publication to the present; a selection of new essays and reprinted critical essays on Heart of Darkness, by Ian Watt, Linda Dryden, Ruth Nadelhaft, J. Hillis Miller and Peter Brooks, providing a range of perspectives on the novel and extending the coverage of key critical approaches identified in the survey section; cross-references between sections of the guide, in order to suggest links between texts, contexts and criticism; suggestions for further reading. Part of the Routledge Guides to Literature series, this volume is intended for all those beginning detailed study of Heart of Darkness and seeking not only a guide to the novel, but a way through the wealth of contextual and critical material that surrounds Conrad's text."

     Walter Goebel, Ulrich Seeber, and Martin Windisch, eds. Conrad in Germany. East European Monographs, 2007.

"This is a collection of essay, some of which consider Conrad's reception in Germany and the translation of his works into German. The remaining essays deal with Modernism and its discontents and with the Nautic quest. All are written by German scholars."
     Jeremy Hawthorn. Sexuality and the Erotic in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Continuum, 2007.

"This book presents a sustained critique of the interlinked (and contradictory) views that the fiction of Joseph Conrad is largely innocent of any interest in or concern with sexuality and the erotic, and that when Conrad does attempt to depict sexual desire or erotic excitement, this results in bad writing. Hawthorn argues for a revision of the view that Conrad lacks understanding of and interest in sexuality. He argues that the comprehensiveness of Conrad's vision does not exclude a concern with the sexual and the erotic, and that this concern is not with the sexual and the erotic as separate spheres of human life, but as elements dialectically related to those matters public and political that have always been recognized as central to Conrad's fictional achievement. The book is intended to open Conrad's fiction to readings enriched by the insights of critics and theorists associated with Gender Studies and Post-colonialism."

     Zdzislaw Najder. Joseph Conrad: A Life. Camden House, 2007.

"Joseph Conrad is not only recognized as one of the world's great writers of English--and world--literature, but as a writer who lived a fascinating, unusually full and adventurous life. But Conrad's life presents the biographer with uncommon difficulty because, whether due to his itinerancy as a young man, the destruction of documentary evidence in the turmoil of the twentieth century, or the discreetness and relative isolation Conrad cultivated in his years as a writer, there are many periods for which documentation is difficult. Zdzislaw Najder's biography first appeared in English in 1983, a product of twenty-five yeas of painstaking study, and received great praise as the best, most complete biography of Conrad. Najder's command of English, French, Polish and Russian allowed him access to a greater variety of sources than any other biographer, and this has again come into play in the present revised edition. It provides extensive new material, much of it unearthed in newly opened former east-bloc archives. Najder's Polish background and his own experience as an exile in the 1980's have afforded him an unmatched affinity for Conrad and his milieu. There is new material on Conrad's father's genealogy and his role as a Polish national leader; Conrad's service in the French and British merchant marines; his early English reading and correspondence; his experiences in the Congo and their international context; the circumstances of writing A Personal Record and Under Western Eyes; and much more. In addition, several aspects of Conrad's life and works are more thoroughly and precisely analyzed: his problems with the English language; his borrowings from French writers; his attitude toward socialism; and his reaction to the reception of his books. New material makes up a quarter of the text of the revised edition and almost three-quarters of the references."

     Kieran O'Hara. Joseph Conrad Today. Imprint Academic, 2007.

"O'Hara argues that the novelist Joseph Conrad's work speaks directly to us in a way that none of his contemporaries can. Conrad's skepticism, pessimism, emphasis on tHeart of Darkness uncovers the rotten core of the Eurocentric myth of imperialism as a way of bringing enlightenment to 'native peoples'--lessons which are relevant once more as the Iraq debacle has undermined the claims of liberal democracy to universal significance. The result can hardly be called a political program, but Conrad's work is clearly suggestive of a skeptical conservatism. The difficult part of a Conradian philosophy is the profundity of his pessimism--far greater than Oakeshott, with whom Conrad does share some similarities (though closer to a conservative politician like Salisbury). Conrad's work poses the question of how far we as a society are prepared to face the consequences of our ignorance."

      Martin Ray. Joseph Conrad: Memories and Impressions - A Bibliography. Rodopi, 2007.

"This bibliography, the first volume in the new Conrad Studies Series published by Rodopi in cooperation with The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), collects and annotates impressions and memories of Joseph Conrad by his family, friends, and acquaintances. It covers both full-length memoirs as well as newspaper and magazine articles, and in its wide sweep offers abundant details about the novelist's personality and life. Of particular value is Martin Ray's emphasis on difficult-to-trace items and the in-depth coverage of Conrad's trip to the United States in the spring of 1923. Expected to be an essential tool for the scholar, this book can also be read with pleasure for the light it throws on Conrad the man."

    Allan H. Simmons. Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Reader's Guide. Continuum, 2007.

"Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" is a central text in the flowering of Modernist literature in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and one of the most important literary works of the twentieth century. This guide provides an introduction to the novella and includes a survey of its influence in arts as diverse as music, cinema, travelogue, and fiction. This introduction to the text is a companion to study, offering chapters on: Literary and historical context; Language, style, and form; a Reading of the text; Critical reception and publishing history; and Adaptation and interpretation."

     Allan H. Simmons and J. H. Stape, eds. The Secret Agent: Centennial Essays. Rodopi, 2007.

"This collection of thirteen essays by writers from several countries celebrates the centenary of the publication of Conrad's The Secret Agent. It reconsiders one of Conrad's most important political novels from a variety of critical perspectives and presents a documentary section as well as specially commissioned maps and new contextualizing illustrations. Much new information is provided on the novel's sources, and the work is placed in new several contexts. The volume on this novel is intended both for students studying it as a set text as well as for scholars of the late-Victorian and early Modernist periods."

     J. H. Stape. The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad. Heinemann, 2007.

"Conrad's impact has been so profound and far-reaching that, eighty years after his death, he remains an essential cultural reference point. Such phrases as 'heart of darkness' and 'The horror! The horror!' have entered the language, often cited without an awareness of their original contexts. His popular legacy extends to Latin American fiction, to the spy novel, to the terrorist and anarchist character, and to film. The writers he has influenced range from T. S. Eliot to William Faulkner to V. S. Naipaul and John Le Carre. For a writer of 'difficult' fiction he has enjoyed a remarkably wide impact, yet as Marlow proclaims in Lord Jim of the figure whose story he tells, 'he was one of us,' and so Conrad remains in fascinating ways. Stape's biography--an intimate portrait, including previously unpublished photographs--offers a Conrad for our times, a man with a deep sense of otherness, of multiple cultural identities and, writing in his third language, a working writer always worried about his royalties, whose novels and stories are a cornerstone of literary Modernism and, indeed, of modernity itself."
Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad: The Secret Agent. Humanities-Ebooks, 2007.
"A biographical chapter relates The Secret Agent to Conrad's career. Next, the work's process of composition is discussed, and differences between the serial, the book version and the stage version are explained. An analysis of the plot gives particular attention to its ironic strategies and to the character of the narrator. Various themes and contexts are explored: conceptions of time and topography; anarchistic and Fenian politics; anti-Semitism; evolution, Lombroso and criminology. Literary influences and analogues are illustrated: Dickens, Zola, Ibsen, terrorist fiction. The characters are considered from various viewpoints. A critical survey summarizes the work's reception since its first publication. The bibliography provides a guide to further reading."

    Anthony Fothergill. Secret Sharers: Joseph Conrad's Cultural Reception in Germany. Peter Lang, 2006.

"This is the first book-length account of Joseph Conrad's reception in Germany, a virtually unresearched area of Conrad studies. It demonstrates that Conrad was read and used by his German readers as a cosmopolitan literary and moral voice against the prevailing nationalism of Germany in the 'dark times' of the 1930s and 1940s, when their own voices were being silenced. Challenging the longstanding assumption that Germany remained largely indifferent to his works, this book attempts to demonstrate that, particularly after the translation of the complete fiction commencing in the 1920s, Conrad's works achieved near cult status in Germany. On the basis of diaries and letters, contemporary reviews and essays, unpublished archival material as well as novels and films, the author illuminates the range and importance of Conrad's presence as a powerful liberating imagination within twentieth-century German culture. Championed by Thomas Mann, lauded by Hermann Hesse, and decried as 'Conrad the Jew' by the Nazis, Conrad has remained an influential presence in post-war German culture. The study proposes to offer a fresh perspective on Conrad's works and speaks for the importance of recognizing the way trans-national literary cultural relations have helped to shape European cultural history."

     Banibrata Mahanta. Joseph Conrad: The Gothic Imagination. Adhyayan Publishers, 2006.

"Joseph Conrad's consistent concern is with the state of humanity vis-a-vis its nature, ideas and ideals in a complex world. His treatment of his protagonists and themes addresses the modernist concerns and views of humanity as placed in a political universe. Whether it is the pushes and pulls of a human being's inner self or the outer world, humanity's movement in the universe is shown to be oscillatory rather than linear. And Conrad's approach to his subject is suffused with a gothic sensibility that has not been adequately addressed. This study is an attempt to analyze Conrad's works, in terms of theme and technique, from the gothic perspective."

    Tim Middleton. Joseph Conrad. Routledge, 2006.

"The popular yet complex work of Joseph Conrad has attracted much critical attention over the years, from the perspectives of postcolonial, modernist, cultural and gender studies. This guide to Conrad's compelling work is intended to offer: an accessible introduction to the contexts and many interpretations of Conrad's texts, from publication to the present; an introduction to key critical texts and perspectives on Conrad's life and work, situated in a broader critical history; cross-references between sections of the guide, in order to suggest links between texts, contexts and criticism; suggestions for further reading. Part of the Routledge Guides to Literature series, this volume is intended as essential reading for all those beginning detailed study of Joseph Conrad and seeking not only a guide to his works but also a way through the wealth of contextual and critical material that surrounds them."

     Josiane Paccaud-Huguet, ed. Conrad in France. Social Science Monographs, 2006.

"In this collection, French intellectuals and scholars comment on the relationship between British novelist Joseph Conrad's work and French culture and criticism. The book presents readings of Conrad's major texts by several generations of critics, such as Andre Gide, Andre Maurois, and Ramon Fernandez, with generation approaching his works from a variety of angles while remaining attentive to the link between the artist and his work."

     Bernard J. Paris. Conrad's Charlie Marlow: A New Approach to "Heart of Darkness" and Lord Jim. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

"Whereas Marlow has usually been discussed as a literary device who is of no special interest in himself, this study argues that Conrad portrays Marlow and his relationships with a psychological depth that is unsurpassed in literature. In "Youth," "Heart of Darkness," and Lord Jim, he is a continuously-evolving character whose thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are expressions of his personality and experience. Understanding Marlow's motivations newly illuminates the formal complexity and thematic richness of these works, for his inner conflicts profoundly affect the structure of his narrations, his interactions with his auditors, and the elusive meanings of his tales."

     John G. Peters. The Cambridge Introduction to Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 2006.

"Joseph Conrad is one of the most intriguing and important modernist novelists. His writing continues to preoccupy twenty-first-century readers. This introduction is aimed at students coming to Conrad's work for the first time. The rise of postcolonial studies has inspired new interest in Conrad's themes of travel, exploration, and racial and ethnic conflict. Peters explains how these themes are explored in his major works, Nostromo, Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness, as well as his short stories. He provides an essential overview of Conrad's fascinating life and career and his approach to writing and literature. A guide to further reading is included which points to some of the most useful secondary criticism on Conrad. This is intended to be a comprehensive and concise introduction to studying Conrad, and is intended to be essential reading for students of the twentieth-century novel and of modernism."

     Mohit K. Ray. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Atlantic Publishers, 2006.

"Hastily written in pencil and serialized in Blackwood's Magazine in 1899 as 'The Heart of Darkness,' and later published in book form in 1902, as Heart of Darkness, the sibylline charm of the novel has established it as one of the most important canonical texts of British literature. Critics have seen the book as an 'angry document on absurd and brutal exploitation' (Guerard), 'probably the greatest short novel in English' (Karl), 'an annunciation of the Savage God' (Cox), an adventure story, an early instance of modern fiction, an existential novel, and an early specimen of New Historicism. The novel 'turns on a double paradox' (Hillis Miller), and 'addresses itself simultaneously to Europe's exploitation of Africa, the primeval human situation, an archaic aspect of the mind's structure and a condition of moral baseness' (Party). But at the same time the novel has elicited an angry reaction from Chinua Achebe who calls Conrad, 'a bloody racist.' The present study, one in the series of Atlantic Critical Studies, attempts to make a close reading of the novel, and examines its various aspects never losing the touch with the reality of the academic needs of the students of English literature."

     Allan H. Simmons. Joseph Conrad. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.

"Joseph Conrad is one of the great figures in the tradition of the English novel. This book provides a critically-informed introduction to Conrad and his work, placing him in his political, social, and literary context, and examining his relationship to Modernism, England and Empire. It covers the range of Conrad's fiction, from the early Malay novels, through such key works as Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes, to his later novels. This book intends to provide first-time readers of Conrad with in-depth contexts for appreciating a writer whose work is often challenging, while readers already familiar with Conrad's fiction should find new perspectives with which to view it. Intended to be approachable and authoritative, this introductory guide should be of interest for anyone with an interest in a master of twentieth-century fiction whose work variously altered the English and European literary landscape."

     Peter Villiers. Joseph Conrad: Master Mariner. Sheridan House, 2006.

"Before he published his first novel in 1895, Joseph Conrad spent twenty years in the merchant navy, eventually obtaining his master's ticket and commanding the barque Otago, in which he sailed a notable passage from Sydney to Mauritius. This book traces his sea-career, and shows how Captain Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski, master mariner, became Joseph Conrad, master novelist."

     John P. Anderson. Conrad's Lord Jim: Psychology of the Self. Universal Publishers, 2005.

"This non-academic author explores Conrad's classic Lord Jim as a clinic in the psychology of the self, a novel whose characters are designed to reflect various degrees of integration of self-image and action and independence from the approval of others. Conrad's character construction anticipates the findings and theories of modern psychology, particularly those of psychological differentiation and to a lesser extent Jung and Freud. The main contrast in the clinic of the self is between the independent Marlow and the dependent Jim. After Jim fails to do his duty as First Mate on a ship named the Patna, he is judged by a court of inquiry and humiliated. Pathologically subject to shame because of the lack of any secure self, the dependent Jim attempts to hide by moving from port to port and finally into the jungle in out of the way Patusan. Crowned Lord Jim by the natives, he meets a seemingly inevitable fate because of his continuing need for approval from others. The independent Marlow helps Jim and in the process develops nuanced attitudes beyond conventional morality. Anderson sees the principal art of the novel as the connection Conrad forged between Jim and the Patna. Damaged by a submerged object while carrying Muslim pilgrims on their annual pilgrimage, the cause and effect of damage to the ship are metaphors for the cause and effect of Jim's psychic damage, damage that makes him susceptible to the pressure of opinions of others. Damaged early by the lack of a mother's nurture, Jim has no strong inner bulkheads to resist the pressure of the opinions of others. This author views the background of the novel, the background against which Conrad constructed Jim's life drama, to include the Garden of Eden myth and the attitudes towards free will in Islam and Christianity. As he did with works by Joyce, Faulkner and Flaubert, Anderson gives his analysis in a chapter by chapter and selected paragraph by paragraph reading of the novel."

     Byron Caminero-Santangelo. African Fiction and Joseph Conrad: Reading Postcolonial Intertextuality. State University of New York Press, 2005.

"By exploring the relationships between African novels and Joseph Conrad's fiction, this book examines the many discontinuous functions postcolonial revisions of 'the canon' can serve. While contemporary literary studies too often represent such revisions merely as a means for postcolonial writers to challenge a colonial world view, Caminero-Santangelo explores how African authors engage with a wide range of historically specific ideologies generated by particular histories of national independence and the development of postcolonial nations. The shift in focus away from a single colonial moment enables Caminero-Santangelo to detect a complex interweaving of convergence and divergence between Conrad and African writers such as Chinua Achebe, Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Nadine Gordimer, Tayeb Salih, and Ama Ata Aidoo, who use Conradian intertexts to intervene in repressive situations in late twentieth-century Africa. By emphasizing the need to contextualize acts of writing and rewriting in precise historical terms, the author points to the limitation seven the dangers of the standard cultural binary (Western colonial/African postcolonial) and the static dialectic of colonial domination and postcolonial resistance embraced by much recent cultural criticism."

     Terry Collits. Postcolonial Conrad: Paradoxes of Empire. Routledge, 2005.

"Across the twentieth century Joseph Conrad's colonial novels were read from radically different perspectives and interpreted through a wide range of discourses. By the century's end these fictions, which record the encounters between Europe and Europe's 'Other' at the moment of high imperialism, had become key texts in the burgeoning field of postcolonial studies. In this study Collits tackles what is now a central question in both postcolonial studies and Conrad scholarship: what happens when Conrad's novels are read from the perspective of the colonized? Drawing on many years of research and a rich body of critical approaches, including psychoanalysis, feminism, and discourse analysis, Postcolonial Conrad not only offers fresh readings of Conrad's novels of imperialism but also maps and analyses the interpretative tradition they have generated. Collits begins by examining the reception of Conrad's work in terms of the history of ideas, traditional literary criticism, concepts of 'Englishness,' Marxism and postcolonialism. The novels he then selects for detained re-evaluation are Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, and Victory. Collits's wide-ranging volume re-examines a century of literary history, analysing the ways in which changing political, pedagogical and theoretical conditions have generated an interpretative tradition of extraordinary density. Postcolonial Conrad concludes by identifying lines of political criticism that are emerging in the twenty-first century and thus asks anew in what terms we might understanding these powerful and intriguing novels."

     Mario Curreli, ed. The Ugo Mursia Memorial Lectures Second Series Papers from the International Conrad Conference University of Pisa, September 16th-18th 2004. Edizioni ETS, 2005.

"This volume collects the papers given at the Second International Conference of Conrad scholars, hosted by the University of Pisa in September 2004, to commemorate the Italian publisher and eminent Conrad scholar and translator, Ugo Mursia (1916-1982). Bringing together the results of new research by the most eminent scholars and critics in the field, The Ugo Mursia Memorial Lectures pay homage to Dr. Mursia's thorough research of original documents, and reveal the wide international admiration for his fine Italian edition of Conrad's complete works. In their variety of methodological approaches, these twenty-three new essays, presented here in the same order as in the Conference sessions, deal with 'Conrad and the Classical World,' the 'Centenary of Nostromo,' and 'Conrad's Reception in Italy.' The wide range of these in-depth explorations and findings provide fresh insights and original appraisals of Conrad's artistic achievement."

     Laurence Davies and J. H. Stape, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1920-1922. Vol. 7. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

"This penultimate volume of Conrad's collected letters ends soon after his 65th birthday. Over the previous three years, Conrad wrote The Rover, struggled with Suspense, translated The Book of Job (a Polish comedy), collaborated with J. B. Pinker on a cinematic treatment of 'Gaspar Ruiz,' and worked by himself on adapting The Secret Agent for the London stage. He saw the publication of The Rescue, Notes on Life and Letters, and the Doubleday/Heinemann collected edition, most of whose volumes had new Author's Notes. Especially in North America, the collected edition strengthened his reputation as the leading English-language novelist of his day. This recognition could not always console him for his worries about his health, his family, and the state of post-war Europe, but he had not lost his sense of irony. These letters, the majority new to scholarship, abound in striking turns of phrase and unexpected insights."

     Stephen Donovan. Joseph Conrad and Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

"Joseph Conrad and Popular Culture offers an alternative to the view of Joseph Conrad as far removed from the world of Victorian and Edwardian popular culture. From a prototype video arcade in wartime Vienna to the tourist hordes of Capri to the driving seat of a speeding Cadillac in Kent, it shows how Conrad's exposure to the experiences and artefacts of modern popular culture exercised a formative influence on his fiction. Through detailed readings of The Nigger of the 'Narcissus', Typhoon, The Secret Agent, Lord Jim and Chance, it seeks to recover the full significance of panoramas, moving pictures, magic lantern effects, waxwork tableaux, Thomas Cook's globetrotters, and the new sport of hiking for some of Conrad's best-known works. Drawing on previously unpublished images and archival materials as diverse as Bovril advertisements and spirit photographs, this study reveals popular culture as a key historical context for this major Modernist writer and should be of interest to all students, scholars and enthusiasts of Conrad."

     Richard J. Hand. The Theatre of Joseph Conrad: Reconstructed Fictions. Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

"This book is the first full-length appraisal and critical analysis of Joseph Conrad and the theatre. Although the dramatic dimension to Conrad's fiction has always been acknowledged, his experiments in drama have traditionally been marginalised. Conrad wrote three plays--One Day More, Laughing Anne and The Secret Agent--and was closely involved in the dramatisation of Victory. All four plays represent a serious investigation of the dramatic form and some of them were startlingly ahead of their time. Furthermore, they are all adaptations, and the creation of them yields fascinating results with generic, stylistic and thematic ramifications. This book analyses each of the plays in close relation to the original fiction and contextualises them in relation to relevant theatrical genres such as melodrama and the Grand-Guignol as well as relating them to wider issues such as theatrical censorship and critical reception."

     Robert Hudson and Edwin Arnold, eds. Joseph Conrad: A Critical Study. Anmol Publications, 2005.

"This book consists of eight articles x-raying Conrad's life events and literary achievements. The main topics, included herein are--'Joseph Conrad: An Overview'; 'Testing for Truth: Joseph Conrad and the Ideology of the Examination'; 'The Moral Sense in Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim'; 'Contextualizing and Comprehending Joseph Conrad's "The Return"'; 'Colonizers, Cannibals and the Horror of Good Intentions in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; 'Joseph Conrad's "Sudden Holes" in Time: The Epistemology of Temporality'; 'Politics, Modernity and Domesticity: The Gothicism of Conrad's The Secret Agent'; '"Signifying Nothing": Conrad's Idiots and the Anxiety of Modernism.'"

     Wieslaw Krajka, ed. A Return to the Roots: Conrad, Poland and East-Central Europe. East European Monographs, 2005.

"This study considers various aspects of the relationship between Conrad's literary work and his roots in Polish and East-Central European culture. In particular, it examines various aspects of Conrad's relationship to Poland--the evolution of his attitude toward his homeland, the influence of Polish literature on his work, his reception by Polish audiences--and to Russian literature, particularly Dostoevsky and Turgenev. This volume collects 14 essays by scholars from the United States, Europe and beyond. It is critically diverse, containing elements of biography, psychoanalysis, film criticism, comparative literature, and sociological and philosophical interpretation. The scope of critical materials is equally wide-ranging: from considerations of Conrad's life and political attitudes to overviews of his entire oeuvre and focused studies of single literary works."

     George A. Panichas. Joseph Conrad: His Moral Vision. Mercer University Press, 2005.

"This book seeks to renew interest in Joseph Conrad's moral imagination--not literary theory but the dignity of creative literature impels the author's reflections on Conrad's novels in their 'varied shades of moral significance.' Here, the author approaches Conrad's novels in the context of what the novelist V. S. Naipaul writes: 'In fiction he did not seek to discover; he sought to explain; the discovery of every tale is a moral one.' In his interpretations, the author focuses on the consequences of moral darkness and moral warfare as he proceeds to look at Conrad's basic ideas and meaning. The book argues that morality in Conrad's work is not reducible to an absolute category but must be apprehended in the forms of both moral crises and the possibility of moral recovery enacted in their complexity and tensions. Guiding a reader's travels to the furthest realms of Conrad's imagination so as to penetrate to the heart of the novelist's moral vision is one of the author's dominant aims. These travels take the reader to The Secret Agent, Lord Jim, Victory, Under Western Eyes, Chance, and The Rover. At the center of this study is a long chapter on Nostromo. The author views this novel as representative of Conrad's supreme vision of the human world and the human soul in disorder. No chapter better describes how society and character are radically transformed by 'material interests' that defy first principles.   Anyone disturbed by post-modernist advocates of a New World Order may have much to ponder in this challenging book."

     Allan H. Simmons and J. H. Stape, eds. Nostromo: Centennial Essays. Rodopi, 2005.

"In the century since its publication in 1904, Nostromo has taken its place among Conrad's masterpieces as a panoramic novel of revolution and a profound meditation on history and the effects of 'material interest' on human destiny. The eight new essays brought together in this volume examine the novel from various perspectives: as an epic, as a study in colonialism and the problem of 'homecoming,' as an exploration of free will and determinism, as a textual artifact, and as a reflection upon earlier works of European literature by Coleridge, Pushkin and others."

     John P. Anderson. Conrad's Victory: Resurrection Lost. Universal Publishers, 2004.

"This is a detailed reader's guide to the power of Conrad's novel Victory. This non-academic author analyzes Conrad's format as a conflict between the life philosophies of Buddhist separation and Holy Spirit connection, a conflict played out dramatically in the emotional relationship of one man and one woman living on a remote south sea island. Anderson identifies the major themes as follows. Axel Heyst, living alone to avoid emotional entanglements, nonetheless rescues Lena from a touring orchestra, and they escape to live together on his remote island. Lena's connection to Heyst matures from initial interest to sexual love to selfless or spiritual love. But Heyst's response to her remains stuck in sexual possession. Given this failure of love connection, representatives of evil arrive on the island shortly thereafter. The victory of the title is Lena's victory over the fear of death that generates the selfish 'me first' attitude in humans. Grounded in love for Heyst, she achieves a permanent and real sense of self and an ability to deal with evil. Finally the Holy Spirit force field powers her ultimate sacrifice for Heyst. He remains self-possessed, ultimately giving nothing of himself to Lena, but ironically without a secure sense of self or the ability to deal with evil. This author sees Conrad's large structure for Heyst's failure of the spirit as the biblical account of Mary Magdalene's part in the Resurrection of Christ. Heyst's failure to love Lena is his resurrection lost. This author also analyzes the sophisticated art of this novel as an unfolding from stem-cell metaphors into more specialized metaphors producing a powerful artistic victory."

     Daphna Erdinast-Vulcan, Allan H. Simmons, and J. H. Stape, eds. Joseph Conrad: The Short Fiction. Rodopi, 2004.

"Joseph Conrad: The Short Fiction offers a wide range of perspectives on Conrad's short stories. The nine essays deal with early and classic stories as well as the relatively neglected works of Conrad's later career. The essays explore in depth the historical and publishing contexts of individual stories and provide new insights into Conrad's practice as a writer of short fiction. These new readings, based on contemporary theoretical and interpretive perspectives, are directed not only to specialists of literary Modernism but also to the advanced student and the general reader. Essays include Jurgen Kramer, 'What the Country Doctor "did not see": The Limits of Imagination in "Amy Foster"'; Cedric Watts, 'Fraudulent Signifiers: Saussure and the Sixpence in "Karain"'; Sema Postacioglu-Banon, '"Gaspar Ruiz": A Vitagraph of Desire'; P. A. March-Russell, 'The Anarchy of Love: "The Informer"'; Michael Lucas, 'Rehabilitating "The Brute"'; Stephen Donovan, 'Magic Letters and Mental Degradation: Advertising in "An Anarchist" and "The Partner"'; Mark D. Larabee, 'Territorial Vision and Revision in "Freya of the Seven Isles"'; Jeremy Hawthorn, 'Conrad and the Erotic: "A Smile of Fortune" and "The Planter of Malata"'; Jennifer Turner, '"Petticoats" and "Sea Business": Women Characters in Conrad's Edwardian Short Stories.'"

     Nesrin Eruysal and Bengu Taskesen, eds. Joseph Conrad and His Work: The 10th METU British Novelists Seminar Proceedings 19-20 December 2002. Department of Foreign Language Education at Middle East Technical University, 2004.

"The proceedings of 10th METU British Novelists Seminar, the essays include: Robert Hampson, 'Trade Secrets: The Background to Heart of Darkness in Its Historical Context'; Wieslaw Krajka, 'Joseph Conrad's Conception of Europe'; Yacine Kais, 'Nostromo between Pro-imperialism and Anti-imperialism: Latin America Othered'; Nursel Icoz, 'Conrad as Realist and Modernist'; Christopher Cairney, 'The Bird, the Snake and the River: Conrad's Complicated Look at Colonialism'; Valerie Kennedy, '"Homo Duplex": Divided Selves in Conrad and Said'; Armagan Erdogan, 'No Woman, No Home: Masculinity in Joseph Conrad's Fiction'; Gillian Alban, 'What Value Death in Conad?'; Robert Hampson, 'Silence and Secrets in Joseph Conrad's Victory'; Marcin Piechota, 'Wedrowiec (The Wanderer) and Its Possible Influences on Conrad'; Kenneth Rosen, 'Conrad in Wonderland'; Fiona Tomkinson, '". . . For this miracle or this wonder troubleth me right greatly": Conrad's Aletheia'; Margaret J-M Sonmez, 'Conrad's Novels: Truth and Nostromo'; James Coghlan, 'Fortis in Arduis'; Nil Korkut, 'Communication or Introspection?: Marlow's Aim(s) as Narrator in Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim'; Bengu Taskesen, 'The Gloomy Sunshine: Depression in Conrad'; Nurten Birlik, 'Subversion of the Oedipus: The Marriage of Two Castaways in "Amy Foster"'; and Nesrin Eruyal, 'The Spectre of the Fear in the Midst of Love'"

     Francois Gallix and Sylvere Monod, ed. Lord Jim Day at the Sorbonne. Mallard Editions, 2004.

"This book is a complete transcription of a conference about Lord Jim organized by the centre of research ERCLA (Francois Gallix and Vanessa Guignery) held at the Sorbonne on 6 December 2003. The conference proceedings include: Francois Gallix, 'Foreword'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'Lord Jim, The Gunboat Lieutenant and Other French Connections'; 'Round Table' (Sylvere Monod, Zdzislaw Najder, J. H. Stape, Claudine Lesage, Josiane Paccaud-Huguet); 'Questions from the Audience'; Marlene Junius, 'Appendix: Shanties'; Francois Gallix and Sylvere Monod, 'Bibliography.'"

     Carola Kaplan, Peter Lancelot Mallios, Andrea White, eds. Conrad in the Twenty-First Century: Contemporary Approaches and Perspectives. Routledge, 2004.

"Conrad in the Twenty-First Century is a collection of original essays by Conrad scholars that rereads Conrad in light of his representations of post-colonialism, of empire, imperialism, and of modernism and modernity-questions that are once again relevant today. The collection is framed by an introduction by J. Hillis Miller and a concluding interview with Edward W. Said. Conrad's work has taken on a new importance in the dawning of the 21st century: in the wake of September 11th 2001, many cultural commentators returned to his novel The Secret Agent to discuss the roots of terrorism, and the overarching theme of colonialism in much of his work has positioned his writing as central to not only literature scholars, but also to postcolonial and cultural studies scholars and, more recently, to scholars interested in globalization. Conrad in the Twenty-First Century looks at Conrad in a variety of fields including literary studies, cultural studies, ethnic and area studies, and post-colonial studies."

     Gene M. Moore, ed. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Casebook. Oxford University Press, 2004.

"Heart of Darkness, Joseph Conrad's fictional account of a journey up the Congo river in 1890, raises important questions about colonialism and narrative theory. This casebook contains materials relevant to a deeper understanding of the origins and reception of this controversial text, including Conrad's own story 'An Outpost of Progress,' together with a little-known memoir by one of Conrad's oldest English friends, a brief history of the Congo Free State by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and a parody of Conrad by Max Beerbohm. A wide range of theoretical approaches are also represented, examining Conrad's text in terms of cultural, historical, textual, stylistic, narratological, post-colonial, feminist, and reader-response criticism. The volume concludes with an interview in which Conrad compares his adventures on the Congo with Mark Twain's experiences as a Mississippi pilot."

     Stephen Ross. Conrad and Empire. University of Missouri Press, 2004.

"In Conrad and Empire, Stephen Ross challenges the orthodoxy of the last thirty years of Conrad criticism by arguing that to focus on issues of race and imperialism in Conrad's work is to miss the larger and more important engagement with developing globalization undertaken there. Drawing on the conceptual model provided by Arjun Appadurai and by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Ross maintains that Conrad's major novels confront an emergent new world order that replaces nation-state-based models of geopolitics with the global rule of capitalism, and shows how Conrad supplements this conceptualization by tracing the concrete effects such a change on the psyches of individual subjects. Borrowing from Slavoj Zizek and Jacques Lacan, Ross contends that Conrad's major novels present us with an astute vision of a truly global world order. Devoting a chapter to each novel, Ross analyzes Heart of Darkness", Lord Jim, Nostromo, and The Secret Agent to expose their social vision, their concern with individual experience, and their philosophical synthesis of the two.  After showing how Conrad sets the stage, Ross considers selected characters' personal histories and the family romances by which Conrad sheds light on individual characters' motives, exposing the penetration of ideological forces into personal lives. He then shows how the drama of slave morality in each of the novels synthesizes their critique of social organization and their attention to personal history by revealing how each novel follows an individual character's doomed attempt to transcend the totalizing dimensions of Empire. Ross argues that though postcolonial criticisms of Conrad's work have produced excellent insights, they remain inadequate to understanding its complexity. Instead, he suggests that Conrad's novels should be read for their compellingly prescient vision of a postnational world under the sway of global capitalism. Although Conrad's vision of that world is undeniably bleak, Ross believes, his almost willful reaffirmation of the very values he has shown to be bankrupt constitutes a 'weak idealism.' Consequently, Ross argues, Conrad's fiction is profoundly ethical and pertinent to the pressing project of how to live in a bewilderingly variable world."

     Ray Stevens. Two Last Essays: "Whither Conrad and 'Legends'?, A Textual History of Conrad's Last Essay" & "Homo Neanderthalensis, Mencken, Monkeys and Bible Belt Buckles." Minuteman Press, 2004.

      David Adams. Colonial Odysseys: Empire and Epic in the Modernist Novel. Cornell University Press, 2003.

"Works such as Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, 'Karain,' Nostromo, The Voyage Out, A Passage to India, and A Handful of Dust explore the relationship between Britain and its colonies when the British Empire was at its height. Adams observes that, because of their structure and specific literary allusions, they also demand to be read in relation to the epic tradition. The underlying concerns of these narratives, Adams discovers, are often less political or literary than metaphysical: in each of these fictions a major character dies as a result of the journey, inviting reflection on the negation of existence. Repeatedly, imaginative encounters with distant, uncanny colonies produce familiar, insular presentations of life as an odyssey, with death as the home port."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Bloom's BioCritiques: Joseph Conrad. Chelsea House, 2003.

"This book is a combination of biography and criticism and serves as an introduction to both the life and works of Conrad. It includes an introduction by Bloom, a biographical essay by Amy Sickels, an introduction to Conrad's works by Richard Ruppel, and essays by Carola M. Kaplan on Heart of Darkness, David Allen Ward on Nostromo, and Tracy Seeley on Lord Jim."

     Keith Carabine and Max Saunders, eds. Inter-Relations: Conrad, James, Ford and Others. Social Science Monographs, 2003.

"The thirteen essays in Inter-Relations: Conrad, James, Ford and Others offer contemporary perspectives on the literary relationships between Joseph Conrad, Henry James, and Ford Madox Ford, particularly their methodological approaches and how these approaches influenced the artistic growth of Joseph Conrad. The essays address a broad spectrum of themes, from language and narrative technique to impressionism and issues of gender; from techniques of autobiography to those of psychology and creative personality; and from fact vs. fiction studies to those concerned with the contact/clash of cultures, motifs of suicide and death, and the city in literature. Essays include Max Saunders, 'Reflections on Impressionist Autobiography: James, Conrad and Ford'; Jed Rasula, '"Vessels of Consciousness": The Reader's Place in Literary Impressionism'; Caroline Patey, 'Londonscapes: Urban Anxieties and Urban Aesthetics in James, Ford and Conrad'; Robert Hampson, 'Gossip in Conrad, James and Ford'; Michael A. Lucas, 'Ford's Truth about Talk: Conversation in James, Conrad and Ford'; Martin Bock, 'Secret Sharing: Conrad, Ford and Neurasthenia'; Joseph Wiesenfarth, 'Approaching Ford Madox Ford's Joseph Conrad: A Personal Remembrance'; Vita Fortunati, 'Biography and Fiction in Ford's Joseph Conrad: A Personal Remembrance'; Paul Skinner, '"Not the Stuff to Fill Graveyards": Joseph Conrad and Parade's End'; Anthony Fothergill, '"For to End Yet Again": Suicide in the Stories of Joseph Conrad and Ford Madox Ford'; Keith Carabine, '"Where to?": A Comparison of Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment and Conrad's Under Western Eyes'; Merry M. Pawlowski, 'Landscape Painting: Gender and the Production of Cultural Space in Conrad, James and Woolf'; and Jacques Berthoud, 'Convergent Cultures in Early Modernist Novellas.'"

     Mario Curreli, ed. Hans van Marle and Ian Watt, Conradians: A Tribute from Friends. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 2003.

"This pamphlet is a tribute to Hans van Marle and Ian Watt. Essays include Constant Boesen, 'The Life of Hans van Marle'; Mario Curreli, 'The Life of Ian Watt'; Mario Curreli, 'Hans and Ian's Legacy'; Christopher GoGwilt, 'Reminiscences of Hans van Marle'; Robert Hampson, 'Hans van Marle'; Peter Mallios, 'Remembering Ian Watt and Hans van Marle'; Sylvere Monod, 'Personal Records: Ian Watt and Hans van Marle'; Gene M. Moore, 'Remembering Two Friends'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'Remembering Two Friends'; Allan H. Simmons, 'Hans van Marle: A Reflection'; J. H. Stape, 'Remembering Hans'; Cedric Watts, 'Recollections of Hans van Marle and Ian Watt.'"

     Lissa Schneider. Conrad's Narratives of Difference: Not Exactly Tales for Boys. Routledge, 2003.

"Though Conrad's works are notorious for the absence or dearth of female characters, this book demonstrates that Conrad often represented women and femininity in fugitive ways.  Arguing that gender and difference are conceptual and performative, Schneider examines many of Conrad's best-known fictions attempts to show how his use of female allegorical imagery, oppositional narrative strategies, and hybrid generic structures challenge late Victorian ideologic (and generic) norms and goals.  Schneider's analysis attempts to illustrate how Conrad's characters negotiate the 'shadow-line' of Victorian paradigms of gender, race, and class to clear a space for a modern revisioning of difference." 

     David Bell, ed. Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus": A Dialogue Seminar. Mid-Sweden University College, 2002.

"Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus" has a reputation for complexity of narrative technique and the ambiguity and uncertainty of its meaning. The Dialogue Seminar held in Ostersund in 1997 with academics from Sweden, Britain, Norway, and Finland explored a number of approaches to these problems from the perspectives of contemporary literary theories.  Post-colonial, post-modern and genre analyses help to explore the issues of power and its subversion in various readings of the novella. This volume includes four of the papers presented at the seminar with an introduction. Essays include: David Bell, 'Introduction: Voyage to the Shades'; Jeremy Hawthorn, 'Narcissism, Seeing and Imperialism: Narrative Technique and the Ideology in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; John Crompton, '"From afar I saw them discoursing": Language and "the latent feeling of fellowship" in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Gerald Porter, '"You wouldn't call me nigger if I wasn't half dead": Challenging Hierarchies in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Mark Troy, '"To make you see": Society and Narrative Strategies in The Nigger of the "Narcissus."'"

     Martin Bock. Joseph Conrad and Psychological Medicine. Texas Tech University Press, 2002.

"Conrad's life and fiction are often read through the lens of Freudian thought, though Conrad understood his own health from a pre-Freudian perspective. This book recovers that perspective, revises our understanding of Conrad life, and rethinks the dominant themes of his work in light of pre-Freudian medical psychology. Beginning with a social history of late-nineteenth-century medical psychology and hysteria studies, Bock's study presents a synopsis of fin-de-siecle theories of nervous disorder and moral insanity, tries to show how Conrad's doctors were trained in medical theories that privilege the physiological over the psychological, and describes what Conrad endured during his water cures as Champel-les-Bains and in an English culture that constructed nervous disease--particularly his diagnosed neurasthenia--as a feminine disorder. This book reads Conrad's fiction medically, showing how Conrad's work focuses on such narrative strategies as Conrad's rhetoric of hysteria and enervation and his vivid, nervous descriptions, and it shows how major tropes such as restraint, seclusion, and water--all treatments for insanity--were important issues in the medical discourse of Conrad's day and are themes that ru through Conrad's fiction."

     Cesare Casarino. Modernity at Sea: Melville, Marx, Conrad in Crisis. University of Minnesota Press, 2002.

"At once a literary-philosophical meditation on the question of modernity and a manifesto for a new form of literary criticism, Modernity at Sea argues that the nineteenth-century sea narrative played a crucial role in the emergence of a theory of modernity as permanent crisis. In a series of close readings of such works as Melville's White-Jacket and Moby Dick, Conrad's The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' and 'The Secret Sharer,' and Marx's Grundrisse, Cesare Casarino draws upon the thought of twentieth-century figures including Giorgio Agamben, Louis Althusser, Walter Benjamin, Leo Bersani, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari, and Antonio Negri to characterize the nineteenth-century ship narrative as the epitome of Michel Foucault's 'heterotopia'--a special type of space that simultaneously represents, inverts, and contests all other spaces in culture. Elaborating Foucault's claim that the ship has been the heterotopia par excellence of Western civilization since the Renaissance, Casarino goes on to argue that the nineteenth-century sea narrative froze the world of the ship just before its disappearance-thereby capturing at once its apogee and its end, and producing the ship as the matrix of modernity."

     Con Coroneos. Space, Conrad, and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 2002.

"Recent literary and cultural criticism has taken a spatial turn. Nowadays, to speak is to speak from, to, or in; to know something is to have 'mapped' its discursive operation. This book locates this development within the opposition between a space of things and a space of words, tracing aspects of its emergence from the geopolitical idea of 'closed space' which developed in the early 20th century to the influence of Saussurean linguistics in contemporary criticism and theory. Focusing on the work of Conrad, in whom the opposition between a space of words and a space of things is strikingly figured. This book deals with several versions of closed space, using an ancient spatial paradox of God to raise questions about the relations between geography, language, and interpretation.  It also deals with the agitation around finitude and the limit, and the desperate attempt to discover in the resources of language a means of liberation.  Among the figures drawn into dialogue with Conrad are John Buchan, Woolf, Joyce, Peter Kropotkin, Rene de Saussure (brother of the famous Ferdinand), Henri Bergson, the filmmakers George Melies and Carol Reed and, in particular, Michel Foucault, whose anxious negotiation with spatial ideas touches the book's deepest understanding."

     Laurence Davies, Frederick R. Karl, and Owen Knowles, The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1917-1919. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

"This volume presents all known Conrad letters from the years 1917 to 1919 in a framework which highlights their literary, historical, cultural, and biographical significance. Like its predecessors, this volume includes a high proportion of previously unpublished letters, and many of those already published have appeared only in small-circulation journals. Again like its predecessors, this volume is full of surprises that require us to re-mould our understanding of Conrad's writings. His correspondence reveals his state of mind as he and his family dealt with the anxieties of the war time years, and the return to a fragile peace. During this time, Conrad published The Shadow-Line, The Arrow of Gold, and The Rescue, along with a considerable amount of shorter works, and was preparing for the publication of his collected works on both sides of the Atlantic, and was engaged in a critical  rereading of his earlier books."

     Michael Greaney. Conrad, Language, and Narrative. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

"In this re-evaluation of the writings of Conrad, Greaney places language and narrative at the heart of his literary achievement. As a trilingual Polish expatriate, Conrad brought a formidable linguistic self-consciousness to the English novel; tensions between speech and writing are the defining obsessions of his career. He sought very early on to develop a 'writing of the voice' based on oral or communal modes of storytelling.  Greaney argues that the 'yarns' of his nautical raconteur Marlow are the most challenging expression of his voice-centered aesthetic.  But Conrad's suspicion that words are fundamentally untrustworthy is present in everything he wrote. The political novels of his middle period represent a breakthrough from traditional storytelling into the writerly aesthetic of high modernism. Greaney examines a wide range of Conrad's work, combining recent critical approaches to language in post-structuralism with an impressive command of linguistic theory."

     Hunt Hawkins and Brian W. Shaffer, eds. Approaches to Teaching Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" and "The Secret Sharer." The Modern Language Association of America, 2002.

"Conrad's 'Heart of Darkness' and 'The Secret Sharer' are among the most taught and studied works of 20th-century British fiction. Noted for their psychological depth and stylistic artistry, the two stories have been celebrated as exemplars of modernism. They have also given rise to controversy. Scholars have debated whether 'Heart of Darkness' is a critique of British imperialism or a paean to it. In 1975, Chinua Achebe condemned the novella's author as racist, a charge that has provoked much discussion. Part 1, 'Materials,' gives editions, criticism, and resources available to the instructor of these two complex texts. Part 2, 'Approaches,' contains essays that treat historical contexts, such as slavery and the ivory trade in the Congo of the 1890s; examine literary issues, such as Conrad's use of the unreliable narrator; discuss the place of gender and race in the stories; tell of students' responses in a variety of public and private institutions; and explore specific pedagogical methods, including the use of films such as Coppola's Apocalypse Now in the classroom."

     Attie M. de Lange and Gail Fincham, with Wieslaw Krajka, eds. Conrad in Africa: New Essays on Heart of Darkness. Social Science Monographs, 2002.

"A multidisciplinary and international collection of essays, this volume contains contributions by writers from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden, and South Africa. They employ a variety of methodological approaches, from detailed archival scholarship to theoretical perspectives on textuality and discursivity. Topics include the development of narrative voice in Heart of Darkness; the relationship between fictionality and missionary discourse; the notion of race in Conrad's work; and Heart of Darkness in contemporary classroom practice in European and South African contexts."

     Nic Panagopoulos: "Heart of Darkness" and The Birth of Tragedy: A Comparative Study. Kardamitsa, 2002.

"In stressing the loss of the spiritual tradition in western culture as well as the supremacy of biology over theology and aesthetics over ethics, Conrad's work belongs to the modernist movement which Nietzsche's sceptical philosophy helped to usher in. As this comparative study seeks to show, however, the affinities and parallels between texts such as Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy are so numerous and run so deep, that it is difficult to dismiss them as the product of the late-19th Century zeitgeist which their authors shared. Like Nietzsche's revolutionary piece of literary criticism, Heart of Darkness employs the Apollo-Dionysus opposition as its basic structuring principle while offering a critique of European civilization from a vitalist-primitivist perspective. Moreover, both works anticipate the conjunction of anthropological and literary concerns in 20th Century fiction by suggesting that the roots of human culture  lie  in primitive religious rites celebrating the regenerative forces in nature. Conrad 's novella is seen to dramatize the idea explored in The Birth of Tragedy that the genre sprang from the Bacchic rites which culminate in the sacrifice and consumption of the god Dionysus by his intoxicated followers, symbolizing the shattering and reintegration of the original Unity. Heart of Darkness can therefore be said to reflect what Nietzsche called 'tragedy's doctrine of the mysteries' which consists of 'the fundamental knowledge of the unity of all that exists, the consideration of individuation as the original cause of evil, [and] art as the presentiment of a restored unity.' Thus, for Conrad as for Nietzsche, art takes the place of religion as the 'real metaphysical activity of man' having the power to redeem existence through myth rather than morality, while the restoration of the tragic framework which presupposes a coherent and meaningful universe is seen to be of vital importance for modern man, lost as he is in absurdity and doubt."

     Latif Saeed Noori Berzenji. The Reality-Ideal Conflict in Joseph Conrad's Works. Cee Bee Publishers, 2001.

"This book is an analytical study of the eternal clash between illusion and reality in the works of Conrad. Seeing through the hypocrisy of the Western world, Conrad was able to project through fictional themes his experience, that behind the ideal of spreading Christianity and European civilization there lay the power-hungry materialism of the West. This study attempts to establish that through his pre-occupation with the profound problem of evil Conrad uncovers the varied forms and facets of evil in humanity, in society, in nature, and in the universe, tracing at great length the moral repercussions of the discovery of evil in all these forms. More specifically, this study attempts to explore Conrad's vision of the ideal, placing it against his concept of reality. Berzenji argues that critics have hinted at this vision but few have attempted to analyse it in detail, focusing only on those of his major works that embody this vision in which he has tried to depict the human predicament confronting the reality-ideal tension. Berzenji first tries to define this concept from its earliest formulation by Plato and then traces its development to modern times, placing Conrad's vision in this context. Berzenji then deals with the psycho-political depiction of men who set sail for Utopia but were turned back by disaster and futility. In other words the Europeans saw the colonization of Africa as ultimately bringing good to the natives. Conrad, however, was aware that behind the idealized task of spreading Christianity and European civilization there lay the reality of a base, cunning and power-hungry materialism. Berzenji goes on to consider the conflict between an individual's misty ideals and the harsher aspects of reality: the oppressive facets of society, the destructive elements of nature and the darker psychological forces of human nature all of which bear down on an idealistic nature. Berzenji concludes by attempting to define Conrad's own vision of idealism and how it is mirrored various of his works."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Bloom's Major Short Story Writers: Joseph Conrad. Chelsea House, 2001.

"This research and study guide is an introduction to critical analysis of a selection of Conrad's short stories. This book covers four short works (Heart of Darkness, 'Typhoon,' 'The Secret Sharer,' and The Shadow-Line), offering a variety of viewpoints by different critics on important aspects of each work. This volume also includes a biography of Conrad, a summary of each story's plot, a listing of additional critical works about the stories, a complete bibliography of Conrad's work, and an index of important themes and ideas."

     Gail Fincham and Attie M. de Lange with Wieslaw Krajka, eds. Conrad at the Millennium: Modernism, Postmodernism, Postcolonialism. Social Science Monographs, 2001.

"This collection is international and interdisciplinary in scope drawing on a large range of theoretical perspectives ranging from archival scholarship to cultural geography and film studies. There are four sections: Modernism and Modernity; Postmodernism: Intertextuality; Postmodernism: Gaze, Vision and Voice; and Postcolonialism."

     Andrew Mozina. Joseph Conrad and the Art of Sacrifice: The Evolution of the Scapegoat Theme in Joseph Conrad's Fiction. Routledge, 2001.

"This book explores the importance of sacrifice in Conrad's major fiction, both as a theme and in Conrad's stance as a writer, showing how his biography, politics, and literary background shaped his treatment of the problem."

     John G. Peters. Conrad and Impressionism. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

"In this book, Peters investigates the impact of Impressionism on Conrad and links this to his literary techniques as well as his philosophical and political views. Impressionism, Peters argues, enabled Conrad to encompass both surface and depth not only in visually perceived phenomena but also in his narratives and objects of consciousness, be they physical objects, human subjects, events or ideas. Though Conrad was thought of as a sceptical writer, Peters suggests that through Impressionism he developed a coherent and mostly traditional view of ethical and political principles, a claim he attempts to support through reference to a broad range of Conrad's texts. Conrad and Impressionism investigates the sources and implications of Conrad's impressionism in order to argue for a consistent link among his literary technique, philosophical presuppositions and socio-political views. The same core ideas concerning the nature of human experience run throughout his works."

     Daniel R. Schwarz. Rereading Conrad. University of Missouri Press, 2001.

"Rereading Conrad attempts to shed new light on an author who has spoken to readers for over a century. Schwarz's essays take account of recent developments in theory and cultural studies, including postcolonial, feminist, gay, and ecological perspectives, and show how reading Conrad has changed in the face of the theoretical explosion that has occurred over the past two decades. Schwarz assembles his work from over the past two decades into one volume, reexamining a seminal figure who continues to be a major focus in the twenty-first century. Schwarz touches on virtually all of Conrad's works, including his masterworks and the later, relatively neglected fiction."

     Linda Dryden. Joseph Conrad and the Imperial Romance. St. Martin's Press, 2000.

"In this study, Dryden places four of his early Malay tales in the context of the literature of imperial romance and adventure that was enjoying great popularity when Conrad began his literary career. Conrad's early Malay fiction reflects his seafaring experiences in the East and expresses his misgivings about the assumptions of 'white superiority,' of imperial power, and of the possibilities for romantic heroism that characterize the late nineteenth-century imperial romance. In fact Conrad was deeply sceptical about its promises of wealth, glory, and heroic reputation. Dryden explores how Conrad used and subverted these tales of Empire to offer an unsettling vision of the imperial experience in Malaya. In Almayer's Folly and An Outcast of the Islands, Conrad challenges the romantic aspirations of his characters; in 'Karain' he deliberately exploits the formula of imperial romance; and in Lord Jim he exposes the fragility of the notion of romantic heroism and gentlemanly conduct. Using illustrations from and references to many well-known novels of Empire, such as Rider Haggard's Allan Quatermain, Dryden demonstrates how Conrad's early Malay fiction alludes to the conventions and stereotypes of popular imperial fiction."

     Peter Edgerly Firchow. Envisioning Africa: Racism and Imperialism in Conrad's Heart of Darkness. University Press of Kentucky, 2000.

"For one hundred years Heart of Darkness has been among the most widely read and taught novels in the English language. Hailed as an incisive indictment of European imperialism in Africa upon its publication in 1899, in recent years it has been repeatedly denounced as racist and imperialist. Firchow attempts to counter these claims. His response is meant to allow the charges of Conrad's alleged bias to be evaluated as objectively as possible. He begins by contrasting the meanings of race, racism, and imperialism in Conrad's day to those of our own time. Firchow then reminds the reader that Heart of Darkness is a novel rather than a sociological treatise and argues that only in relation to its aesthetic significance can real social and intellectual-historical meaning be established.  Envisioning Africa responds in detail to negative interpretations of the novel by trying to reveal what they distort, misconstrue, or fail to take into account. Firchow uses the framework of imagology to examine how national, ethnic, and racial images are portrayed in the text, differentiating the idea of a national stereotype from that of national character. He believes that what Conrad saw personally in Africa should not be confused with the Africa he describes in the novel; Heart of Darkness is instead an envisioning and a revisioning of Conrad's experiences in the medium of fiction."

    Robert Hampson. Cross-Cultural Encounters in Joseph Conrad's Malay Fiction. Palgrave, 2000.

"This book examines Conrad's Malay fiction and focuses on cross-cultural encounters, cultural identity and cultural dislocation in Conrad's Malay fiction , paying particular attention to issues of 'race' and gender. It also situations Conrad's writings about Malaysia in relation to earlier English accounts of the archipelago.  It considers work by Mundy, Keppel, Wallace and Clifford, which Conrad had read, as well as exploring the discursive formation within which that work was produced.  At the same time, it also indicates something of the region's history of cross-cultural encounters.  This books draws on new historicism, as well as postcolonial and postmodern theory, to explore the central problem that Conrad addressed in his fiction: how to represent another culture."

     Owen Knowles and Gene M. Moore. Oxford Reader's Companion to Conrad. Oxford University Press, 2000.

"This volume is the first comprehensive and authoritative reference to distill in a lively, readable way a vast range of information on Conrad's life, works, reputation, and the historical and cultural contexts in which he lived. There are entries on all of Conrad's works, the people he knew, places he visited, and also on such topics as dictation, health, operas, ships, and various schools of Conrad scholarship. Much of the material in the Companion is entirely new, compiled from scattered Conrad resources, many of which have never been published before. The authors, together with a small team of specialist contributors, have brought together the latest findings of modern scholarship to provide an unparalleled resource for all Conrad enthusiasts, one which summarizes and makes available in convenient form the results of the first century of Conrad studies."

     Michael A. Lucas. Aspects of Conrad's Literary Language. Social Science Monographs, 2000.

"Why did Joseph Conrad avoid using English, except when it came to the arduous task of writing fiction? And how do we account for his extensive 'borrowing' from French writers? This psycholinguistic examination delves into the creative mind of Conrad in an attempt to decipher his learning and use of three languages, Polish, French, and English. Following a trail of syntactical eccentricities and considerable stylistic variations, Lucas shows how these features interact to produce Conrad's idiosyncratic style."

     Gene M. Moore, Allan H. Simmons, and J. H. Stape, eds. Conrad between the Lines: Document in a Life. Rodopi, 2000.

"This volume makes available a variety of texts by Conrad's friends and contemporaries, ranging from a sailing memoir by his oldest English friend to a dramatic adaptation of his novel Victory, and from his secretary's notebook to his last will and testament. Often mentioned or cited by scholars, these texts are here published in full for the first time. They also reveal Conrad speaking 'between the lines' in various voices, and raise theoretical questions about the social nature of authorship and the construction of authorial canons. Essays include G. F. W. Hope, 'Friend of Conrad'; 'The "Knopf Document": Transcriptions and Commentary'; Basil MacDonald Hastings, 'Victory'; Wilfred Partington, 'Joseph Conrad Behind the Scenes'; Richard Curle, 'The History of Mr. Conrad's Books'; L. M. Hallowes, 'Note Book of Joseph Conrad'; 'Conrad's Last Will and Testament.'"

     Andrew Michael Roberts. Conrad and Masculinity. Palgrave, 2000.

"This study offers a radical rereading of Conrad's work in light of contemporary theories of masculinity. Drawing on feminism, gay studies, film theory and literary theory, the author shows that Conrad's fiction, even as it reflects certain assumptions of its day about gender roles, offers inquiries into the instability of the 'masculine.' The book explores the relationship masculinity with imperialism, modernity, the visual and the body in a wide range of Conrad's less-known fiction."

     Allan H. Simmons and J. H. Stape, eds. Lord Jim: Centennial Essays. Rodopi, 2000.

"Lord Jim: Centennial Essays features eight essays by Conrad scholars to celebrate the centenary of the publication of what is possibly Conrad's best-known novel. This carefully edited volume covers a wide range of topics, and includes new work on the novel's reception and sources, narrative strategies, and thematic interests. Various contemporary critical approaches--Bakhtinian, postcolonial, and historicist--are aired and reconsidered, and a generous selection of documents relating to the Jeddah affair of 1880 sheds light on Conrad's use of real-life materials. The kaleidoscopic perspectives brought to bear on this landmark of literary Modernism is meant to stimulate and challenge both scholars and students alike."

     Ian Watt. Essays on Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

"Watt has long been acknowledged as one of the finest of postwar literary critics, and among the most learned of those writing about the work of Conrad. Essays on Conrad is a collection of Watt's most characteristic essays on Conrad's work. Watt's own philosophy, as well as his insight into Conrad's work, was shaped by his experiences as a prisoner of war on the River Kwai. His account of these experiences completes this essential collection of Watt essays."

     Beth Sharon Ash. Writing in Between: Modernity and Psychosocial Dilemma in the Novels of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1999.

"Ash develops a theoretical framework for interpreting Conrad's signal texts and his situation as an author. Using relational psychoanalysis, Ashe reinserts into the literary conversation the idea of the psychologically inflected subject.  She integrates authorial and fictional subjectivity with specific historical contexts, thus lending agency and density to the 'relational subject' without neglecting the social forces which shape it. Organized around the thematics of unfinished mourning, this book carefully positions Conrad  as a writer caught 'in between,' as both a figure of alienation disenchanted with British imperialism, and an orphan of genius desiring a fit with his adopted culture. Through readings of Conrad's novels and broad analyses of psychoanalytic and modernist criticisms, Ash attempts to refocus how one reads Conrad and re-theorize the subject and its literary relations."

     Yuan-Jung Cheng. Heralds of the Postmodern: Madness and Fiction in Conrad, Woolf and Lessing. Peter Lang, 1999.

"Heralds of the Postmodern inquires into the possibility of a poetics of madness in Heart of Darkness, Mrs. Dalloway, and The Golden Notebook. By relating the literary expression of the irrational in these works to the philosophical attempt to overcome the subject and rationality in the writings of Nietzsche, Foucault, and Derrida, the book presents modern fiction as an arena in which struggles between reason and madness, limitation and transgression, 'self' and 'other' are fully displayed. It investigates how modern literature subverts traditional metaphysics by exploring the realm of the other reason and the new forms of subjectivity."

     Daphna Erdnast-Vulcan. The Strange Short Fiction of Joseph Conrad: Writing, Culture and Subjectivity. Oxford University Press, 1999.

"This study engages with the troubled question of authorial subjectivity and ethics in Modernism in general and in Conrad's short fiction in particular, and offers a theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of Derrida and the early philosophical writings of M. M. Bakhtin. Part I of the book focuses on the relational dynamics of Under Western Eyes and 'The Secret Sharer' and develops a 'heterobiographical' reading matrix which serves as a psycho-textual and philosophical approach to modes of authorial presence in the text. Part II offers close readings of ten short stories spanning the whole of Conrad's career and clustered into five chapter--'Writing and Fratricide,' 'The Pathos of Authenticity,' 'The Poetics of Cultural Despair,' 'The Romantic Paradox,' and 'Addressing the Woman.' This part of the book engages with the interpretative problems posed by these stories through a cultural-historical perspective, linking Conrad's essentially Romantic sensibility and his unique position on the threshold of Modernism with some of the issues that have emerged from the 'Postmodern turn': the relationship between metaphysics and subjectivity, the conception of inter-subjectivity as prior to and constitutive of subjectivity; the permeability of textual and psychological boundary-lines; and the desire for subjective aesthetization. These issues which can all be traced back to the cultural crisis of the turn of the century, are still with us at the close of the millennium."

     Chris Fletcher. Joseph Conrad. Oxford University Press, [1999].

"Polish-born Joseph Conrad is widely considered to be one of the finest masters of the English language. His life at sea and in foreign ports around the world furnished most of the material for his books, which include Lord Jim, The Secret Agent, and perhaps his best-known story, 'Heart of Darkness.' This illustrated volume provides a look at this complex author and draws materials from the British Library's collection of literary manuscripts and many other sources to narrate the background to Conrad's early family life, his voyages and later years as a writer in England."

     V. T. Girdhari. Novels of Joseph Conrad: The Individual and the World of Human Relationships. Prestige, 1999.

"This book attempts a socio-philosophic evaluation of Conrad as a novelist by a systematic and close examination of the relationship between the individual and the world around him, in his fiction. It presents Conrad, not as a pessimist or a nihilist, but as a positive philosopher having infinite faith in human existence. Girdhari argues that Conrad's novels mark a pattern of 'evolution' of the mind of an individual from personal to social awareness. The purpose of this book is to view the growth of this process in the perspective of the inner consciousness of Conrad's protagonists in response to the outside world of human relationships. Girdhari argues that loneliness, for Conrad, poses a serious threat to human existence.  Consequently, his protagonists open up into the world outside in order tin interact with the species of their kind. According to Girdhari, an individual, in isolation, cannot survive without relating oneself to other members and institutions of the society. One has to emerge out of oneself and rise to a level of perfection through love, compassion and sacrifice. It is the attainment of this state that eventually gives one a sense of fulfillment and a joy of salvation, and thus Conrad had a deep trust in the ultimate value of human relationships."

     Susan Jones. Conrad and Women. Clarendon Press, 1999.

"Supported by an enduring critical paradigm, the traditional account of Conrad's career privileges his public image as a man of the sea, addressing himself to a male audience and male concerns. This book challenges received assumptions by recovering Conrad's relationship to women not only in his life but in his fiction and among his readers. The existing interplay of criticism, biography, and marketing has contributed to a masculinist image associated with a narrow body of modernist texts. Instead, Jones attempts to reinstate the female influences arising from hs early Polish life and culture; his friendship with the French writer Marguerite Poradowska; his engagement with popular women's writing; and his experimentation with visuality as his later work appears in the visual contexts of 'women's pages' of popular journals. By foregrounding less familiar novels such as Chance and the neglected Suspense, she emphasises the range and continuity of Conrad's concerns, showing that his later discussions of gender and genre often originate in the period of the 'great' sea tales. Conrad also emerges as an acute reader and critic of popular forms, while his unexpected entry into important contemporary debates about female identity invites us to rethink the nature of his contribution to modernism."

     Weislaw Krajka. Joseph Conrad: East European, Polish and Worldwide. East European Monographs, 1999.

"A collection of essays written by Conrad scholars from all corners of the world, this book deals with (1) Joseph Conrad's East European and Polish contexts and (2) Joseph Conrad's imperial and American contexts, as well as selected ethical-philosophical and textological-narrative issues. A wide spectrum of themes and aspects of the literary output of Joseph Conrad is addressed as well: from ethical issues to mythical organization of Conradian universe, from analysis of the method of narration to textological studies, from parallels with Whitman and Turgenev to the influence of Dostoevsky and of Polish romantic literature, from post-Freudian to feminist Dutch literature on Indonesia to examination in terms of Indian philosophy of Sri Aurobindo, from mythical anthropological readings of the influence of Polish ethnos and culture to application of elements of Jewish folklore."

     Leonard Orr and Ted Billy, eds. A Joseph Conrad Companion. Greenwood, 1999.

"Conrad  is one of the most widely taught writers in the English language. In addition to his novels, he wrote several pieces of short fiction, essays, and memoirs. He also wrote numerous letters, which help shed light on his troubled life and career. This reference book is a guide to the entire body of his writings and to the experiences that helped generate them. A biographical chapter discusses research on Conrad's life and tells the story of his birth in a Ukrainian area of Poland under Czarist Russian rule, his sea career in France and England, his travels throughout Asia, South America, and Africa, and his maturation as a writer. The chapters that follow are written by contributors who explore each of his major works in detail. Other chapters explore his voluminous correspondence, his later novels, his short fiction, and other writings. Thus the volume provides those new to Conrad with essential biographical, bibliographical, and contextual information, while it simultaneously offers experienced readers of Conrad new critical perspectives."

    Clarice Swisher, ed. Readings on Heart of Darkness. Greenhaven Press, 1999.

"This anthology starts with a short biographical sketch of Conrad, followed by nineteen essays that assess his themes, short works, and later novels. Each one begins with a brief summation of its main ideas and the writer's background; the readable texts average five  pages in length and are broken up by subheadings. Selections represent a range of viewpoints from confirmed Conrad scholars Cedric Watts and Morton Zabel, to more contemporary experts such as Gene Phillips, who compares the film Apocalypse Now to Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness, on which it was based."

     Nicolas Tredell, ed. Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. Columbia University Press, [1999].

"Spanning a range of interpretations, the critical works in this collection analyze the complex narrative technique of Heart Of Darkness while exploring its evocation of myth, philosophy, and politics, its attitudes to empire, its images of Africa, and its representations of women. Examining secondary sources from the 1900's to the 1990's, this guide is a resource for the study of one of Conrad's most potent works."

     Keith Carabine and Owen Knowles, with Paul Armstrong, eds. Conrad, James and Other Relations. Social Science Monographs, 1998.

"The volume, comprising seventeen contributions by students of Conrad and James, focuses on their similarities and differences: as men and writers, and on reciprocal literary and cultural influences. Essays also include commentaries on Conrad's literary relationship with such other writers as Stevenson, Flaubert, and Melville"

     Laura L. Davis, ed. Conrad's Century: The Past and Future Splendour. Social Science Monographs, 1998.

This volume presents studies of Conrad's work at the close of his first century and points toward new directions in Conrad scholarship for the next century. The essays pursue biographical, linguistic, formalist, socio-historical, and theoretical approaches and comment on a great number of fiction and non-fiction works from Conrad's extensive canon--including the centennial novel Almayer's Folly and re-visions of his writings in fiction and film. New work from established Conrad scholars joins with that of the rising generation to offer a full range of perspectives on the breadth of Conrad's culture and art.

     Andrew Gibson and Robert Hampson, eds. Conrad and Theory. Rodopi, 1998.

"This collection of essays about Conrad and theory includes the following essays: Robert Hampson, 'Introduction'; Sandra Dodson, 'Conrad and the Politics of the Sublime'; Anthony Fothergill, 'Signs, Interpolations, Meanings: Conrad and the Politics of Utterance'; Gail Fincham, 'The Dialogism of Lord Jim'; Andrzej Gasiorek, '"To Season with a Pinch of Romance": Ethics and Politics in Lord Jim'; Andrew Gibson, 'Ethics and Unrepresentability in Heart of Darkness'; Carola M. Kaplan, 'No Refuge: The Duplicity of Domestic Safety in Conrad's Fiction'; Josiane Paccaud-Huguet, 'Reading Shadows into Lines: Conrad with Lacan'; and Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Conrad, Theory and Value.'"

     Karin Hansson, ed. Journeys, Myths and the Age of Travel: Joseph Conrad's Era. Department of Humanities, University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, 1998.

"Journeys, Myths and the Age of Travel: Joseph Conrad's Era, edited by Karin Hansson, contains papers given at an international conference organized by the Department of Humanities of the University of Karlskrona/Ronneby, Sweden in September 1997. To academic teachers and students with an interest in colonial or postcolonial studies, Joseph Conrad's writing is central, historically, generically, and symbolically. The studies show how his oeuvre constitutes a common frame of reference internationally and how it relates in various ways to a number of writers, from his contemporaries to those of today. Illustrating the scope and variety of today's criticism, the contributions deal with works from different phases of Conrad's writing career, including his shorter fiction and novels as well as non-fiction."

     Ursula Lord. Solitude versus Solidarity in the Novels of Joseph Conrad: Political and Epistemological Implications of Narrative Innovation. McGill-Queens University Press, 1998.

"This book is a structural and thematic analysis of early modern British fiction whose intellectual foundation is political theory, sociology, and philosophy. Key theoreticians addressed include Charles Darwin, Max Weber, Hannah Arendt, Karl Mannheim, Karl Marx, Georg Lukacs, and Charles Taylor.  Lord explores the manifestations in narrative structure of epistemological relativism, textual reflexivity, and political inquiry, specifically Conrad's critique of colonialism and imperialism and his concern for the relationship between self and society. The tension between solitude and solidarity manifests itself as a soul divided against itself; an individual torn between engagement and detachment, idealism and cynicism; a dramatized narrator who himself embodies the contradictions between radical individualism and social cohesion; a society that professes the ideal of shared responsibility while isolating the individual guilty of betraying the illusion of cultural or professional solidarity. Conrad's complexity and ambiguity, his conflicting allegiances to the ideal of solidarity versus the terrible insight of unremitting solitude, his grappling with the dilemma of private versus shared meaning, are intrinsic to his political and philosophical thought.  The metanarrative focus of Conrad's texts intensifies rather than diminishes their philosophical and political concerns. formal experimentation and epistemological exploration inevitably entail ethical and social implications.  Lord relates these issues to the dialectic of individual liberty and collective responsibility that lies at the core of the modern moral and political debate."

     Nic Panagopoulos. The Fiction of Joseph Conrad: The Influence of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. Peter Lang, 1998.

"Although Schopenhauer's influence on Conrad has been acknowledged for some time, there have been no book-length studies dealing exclusively with this subject, or the much-debated question of Conrad's relationship to Nietzsche. The present study comes to fill this gap in Conrad criticism, and shows how a knowledge of these philosophers' main ideas can help illuminate the central concerns and presuppositions of Conrad's fiction. The author argues that the novelist was often grappling with the same problems as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, and responding to some of the key issues of the Idealistic movement in the history of ideas."

     Lalitha Ramamurthi and C. T. Indra, eds. Joseph Conrad: An Anthology of Recent Criticism. Pencraft International, 1998.

"This anthology is a collection of critical essays on the works of Joseph Conrad and highlights their relevance in the contemporary literary scenario. It includes contributions of scholars from India, USA, Germany, Spain, Taiwan and South Africa and is representative of the continued and growing interest in Conradian studies across the world. The collection presents re-readings of Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, Typhoon, Under Western Eyes, The Shadow-Line, Karain: A Memory, and The Partner in a framework of postcolonial, postmodern, feminist, moral and biographical approaches and brings out the multivalency of Conrad's fiction."

     Andrew Michael Roberts, ed. Joseph Conrad. Longman, 1998.

"Conrad is a key figure in modernist fiction innovative work engages with many of the crucial philosophical, moral and political concerns of the twentieth century. This collection of critical readings of his work is arranged according to the issues which each critic addresses, issues which are of crucial importance and in many cases remain controversial within contemporary literary theory and criticism. Following an opening section on the critical tradition, indicating how the study of Conrad's work has been politicised since the 1970s, there are sections on 'Narrative, Textuality and Interpretation,' Imperialism,' 'Gender and Sexuality,' Class and Ideology,' and 'Modernity.' Within each section two or three critical excerpts offer contrasting and complementary accounts of the fiction, while the head notes to each piece and the introduction place these excerpts within the wider critical debate, clarifying for the reader both the theoretical issues and the interpretation of Conrad's fiction."

     Clarice Swisher, ed. Readings on Joseph Conrad. Greenhaven Press, 1998.

"This anthology provides a resource for students researching Conrad's life and works.  It contains a biography of Conrad, primary and secondary bibliography, a chronology of Conrad's life and career as well as of concurrent historical events.  The essays are taken from a wide variety of sources and include: 'The Prose Writer's Goals and Methods'; Joseph Conrad, 'Conrad Learns His Craft'; Walter F. Wright, 'Major Elements in Conrad's Stories'; Jerry Allen, 'Conrad as Painter'; Adam Gillon, 'Gender Roles in Conrad's Novels'; Cedric Watts, 'Imagination and Character in "Typhoon''; Jeremy Hawthorn, 'Symbolism in "The Secret Sharer"';  J. B. Priestley, 'Heroism in "The Secret Sharer"'; Michael P. Jones, 'Conrad, the Sea, and "The Secret Sharer"'; Morton Dauwen Zabel, 'The Significance of Character in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Maxine Greene, 'The Significance of the Crew in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; James E. Miller, Jr., 'The Ambiguous Beginning of "Heart of Darkness"'; Richard Adams, 'Marlow's Role in "Heart of Darkness"'; Daniel R. Schwarz, 'Africans in "Heart of Darkness"'; Harold R. Collins, 'Apocalypse Now: A Film Version of "Heart of Darkness"'; Gene D. Phillips, 'The Complex Morality of Lord Jim'; R. A. Gekoski, 'Imperialism and Capitalism in Nostromo'; Robert Penn Warren, 'Irony in The Secret Agent'; and E. M. W. Tillyard, 'Symbolic Characters in Victory.'"

     Turkan Araz. The Art of “Non-Commitment”: Problematic Issues in Conrad’s Major Fiction. Turk Kutuphaneciler Dernegi Istanbul Subesi , 1997.

     Ted Billy. A Wilderness of Words: Closure and Disclosure in Conrad's Short Fiction. Texas Tech University Press, 1997.

"Beginning with a detailed discussion of Conrad's ambivalence toward the function of language and the meaning of fiction, Billy explores the problematical sense of an ending in Conrad's tales and novellas. Billy tries to demonstrate that Conrad's endings, instead of reinforcing the meaning of the narrative or lending finality, actually provide a contrasting perspective that clashes with the narrative's general drift.  Hence, Billy argues, Conrad's artistic endgames celebrate indeterminacy and uncertainty--both in life and in the fictions we create to give our lives meaning.  Billy also grounds his study of Conrad's paradoxical strategy in a theoretical consideration of how the concept of closure has evolved since the Victorian novel.  Ultimately, Billy maintains, Conrad wrote with tow distinct audiences in mind: the conventional reader who relishes the sustained illusion of a conforting coda, and the more sophisticated reader who would appreciate the clash of contradictory perspectives."

     Grazyna Branny. A Conflict of Values: Alienation and Commitment in the Novels of Joseph Conrad and William Faulkner. Wydawnictwo Sponsor, 1997.

"This book is a comparative analysis of Conrad and Faulkner. Its aim is to resolve one of the basic critical controversies in Conrad and Faulkner, i.e. the discrepancy between the apparent negativity of their fiction and the overt affirmation of their non-fictional utterances. This study identifies the discrepancy as being directly related to the issue of alienation and commitment, which forms the core of Conrad's and Faulkner's novels. The types of alienation and commitment differentiated in this book serve to reconcile the negative and the affirmative in Conrad and Faulkner. In the end, it is the category of 'unconscious commitment' that redeems the apparent negativity of a Conrad or Faulkner novel."

     J. N. Lockman. Parallel Captures: Lord Jim and Lawrence of Arabia. Falcon Books. 1997.

"This brief monograph considers the parallels of word choice between the capture and escape episode in Conrad's Lord Jim and the capture, torture, and escape episode, otherwise known as the 'Deraa incident' in T. E. Lawrence's Seven Pillars of Wisdom, his memoir of the Arab Revolt against the Turks during the First World War."

     Gene M. Moore, ed. Conrad on Film. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

"Since the first film version of Joseph Conrad's Victory appeared on the silent screen in 1919, more than eighty film and video versions of his life and works have been made throughout the world. In a series of essays by film and literary scholars, Conrad on Film surveys the history and theory of these adaptations, and examines the challenges faced by major directors in putting Conrad on film. This landmark study of Conrad films, and film adaptations in general, is well illustrated and includes a detailed filmography and film bibliography."

     Gene M. Moore, Owen Knowles, and J. H. Stape, eds. Conrad: Intertexts & Appropriations: Essays in Memory of Yves Hervouet. Rodopi, 1997.

"This collection of essay in honor of Yves Hervouet contains the following essays: 'A Bibliography of Works by Yves Hervouet'; Paul Kirschner, 'The Legacy of Yves Hervouet: An Introduction'; Susan Jones, 'Conrad's Debt to Marguerite Poradowska'; Amy Houston, 'Conrad and Alfred Russel Wallace'; Gene M. Moore, 'Conrad's "The Idiots" and Maupassant's "La MPre aux monstres"'; J. H. Stape, '"Gaining Conviction": Conradian Borrowing and the Patna Episode in Lord Jim'; Owen Knowles, 'Conrad, Anatole France, and the Early French Romantic Tradition: Some Influences'; J. H. Stape, '"One can learn something from Balzac": Conrad and Balzac'; Hugh Epstein, 'Bleak House and Conrad: The Presence of Dickens in Conrad's Writing'; and Hans van Marle and Gene M. Moore, 'The Sources of Suspense.'"

     Zdzislaw Najder. Conrad in Perspective: Essays on Art and Fidelity. Cambridge University Press, 1997.

"The fruits of thirty years of Conrad study appear in this volume of his essays. Najder's views are brought to bear on Conrad's national and cultural heritage, on his fiction itself, on his concepts of man and society, and on his European context. The volume offers new perspectives on Conrad's life and work.  Essays include "Introduction, or Confession of a Mastadon'; 'Conrad's Polish Background, or from Biography to a Study of Culture'; 'Joseph Conrad's Parents'; 'Joseph Conrad and Tadeusz Bobrowski'; 'The Sisters: A Grandiose Failure'; 'Lord Jim: A Romantic Tragedy of Honour'; 'The Mirror of the Sea'; 'A Personal Record'; 'Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent. or the Melodrama of Reality'; 'Conrad, Russia and Dostoevsky'; 'Conrad and Rousseau: Concepts of Man and Society'; 'Conrad and the Idea of Honour'; 'Joseph Conrad: A European Writer'; 'Joseph Conrad after a Century'; 'Joseph Conrad in His Historical Perspective'; 'Fidelity and Art: Joseph Conrad's Cultural Heritage and Literary Programme.'"

    Joyce Piell Wexler. Who Paid for Modernism?: Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, and Lawrence. University of Arkansas Press, 1997.

"Modernist authors faced a dilemma in trying to find their place in the expanding publishing industry of the early 20th century. As the literary market grew, the possibility of monetary success increased. At the same time, the spectacle of many inferior writers becoming rich made serious artists renounce popularity in favor of a discriminating minority audience. Modernist authors were haunted by the contradictions in Flaubert's model of the author as professional; writers had a higher aim than money, yet they expected to be paid for their work. Modernists resolved this dilemma by addressing both issues: they made their fiction difficult, to demonstrate their indifference to sales, and they generated publicity to attract patrons and readers. Who Paid for Modernism? examines how three modernist authors--Conrad, Joyce, and Lawrence--coped with the contradictory models of authorship they inherited. All three wished to reach a wide audience, produce an impact on society, and make a living from their writing, but they found that these aims were incompatible with maintaining their artistic integrity. While the literal answer to the question 'Who paid for modernism?' is that patrons, literary agents, and commercial publishers paid authors, there is also a figurative answer. Authors themselves paid for modernism by giving up the wide audience their ambitions desired and their talents deserved."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Heart of Darkness and "The Secret Sharer": Bloom's Notes, Chelsea House, 1996.

"This volume is designed to present biographical, critical, and bibliographical information on Conrad, Heart of Darkness, and 'The Secret Sharer.' Following Bloom's introduction, there appears a detailed biography of the author, discussing the major events in his life and his important literary works. Then follows a thematic and structural analysis of the works, in which significant themes, patterns, and motifs are traced. An annotated list of characters supplies brief information on the chief characters in the works. A selection of critical extracts, derived from previously published material, then follows. The extracts consist of such things as statements by the author on his works, early reviews of the works, and later evaluations down to the present day. A bibliography of Conrad's writings (including a complete listing of books he wrote, co-wrote, edited, and translated in his lifetime, and important posthumous publications), a list of additional books and articles on him and on Heart of Darkness and 'The Secret Sharer,' and an index of themes and ideas conclude the volume"

     Keith Carabine. The Life and the Art: A Study of Conrad's "Under Western Eyes." Rodopi, 1996.

"Carabine, has worked on the genesis and composition of Under Western Eyes in its several versions and on its literary, ideological, social, and historical contexts. He argues for the ways in which Conrad's 'life' and his protracted, uncertain composition of the Under Western Eyes enrich his 'art'; and the title of this book deliberately invokes Conrad's belief in the inseparability of the art and the life. This study's six chapters concentrate in different ways and with differing emphases on the complex inter-relations between the 'art' and the 'life,' on the intersections between Conrad's personal preoccupations, fictional aesthetic, and working practices with regard to what he described as 'without doubt . . . the most deeply meditated novel that came from under my pen.'"

     Gail Fincham and Myrtle Hooper, eds. Under Postcolonial Eyes: Joseph Conrad after Empire. University of Cape Town Press, 1996.

"Under Postcolonial Eyes: Joseph Conrad after Empire includes insights from Marxism, feminism, deconstruction, colonial discourse theory and narrative theory to reassess the value of Conrad's writing today.  Joseph Conrad deserves to be re-scrutinized by readers, writers and critics on both sides of what used to be the Divide of Empire. His fiction creates complex articulations between form and history, narrative and ideology. Conrad demands to be taken seriously because his self-ironising analysis of colonial ambiguities is now seen to be important to an understanding of the late 20th-century world. This collection of essay by writers from South Africa, Korea, Britain, the USA, and Canada re-examines different frameworks to pose questions about Conrad's relationship to imperialism, the construction of race, class and gender in his fiction, his impact on postcolonial writers, and his place in late 20th-century curricula. The book is divided into 4 sections: 'Positions,' 'Conrad and Empire,' 'Representation of Race, Class and Gender,' and 'Intertextuality.'  Essays include: Gail Fincham and Myrtle Hooper, 'Introduction'; Brenda Cooper, 'Postcolonialism against the "Empire of the Discipline"'; Paul Armstrong, 'Heart of Darkness and the Epistemology of Cultural Differences'; Soo Young Chon, 'Writing as an Exodus from Two Empires'; Gail Fincham, 'Empire, Patriarchy and The Secret Agent'; Robert Hampson, 'Conrad the Idea of Empire'; Michiel Heyns, '"Like People in a Book": Imaginative Appropriation in Lord Jim'; Anthony Fothergill, 'Cannibalising Traditions: Representation and Critique in Heart of Darkness'; Tim James, 'The Other "Other" in Heart of Darkness'; Padmini Mongia, 'Empire, Narrative and the Feminine in Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness'; Gail Fraser, 'Empire of the Senses: Miscegenation in An Outcast of the Islands'; Mitzi Andersen, 'Out of Africa: Darkness and Light'; Gail Fincham, 'Orality, Literature and Community: Petals of Blood and Nostromo'; Myrtle Hooper, 'Woman of Darkness and Mother Africa'; and Andrea White, 'Conrad's Legacy in Postcolonial Literature.'"

     Geoffrey Galt Harpham. One of Us: The Mastery of Joseph Conrad. University of Chicago Press, 1996.

"Conrad has traditionally been seen as a master--a master mariner, master storyteller, master of the secrets of the human heart, master of fictional technique. Recently, however, these compliments have given way to charges that Conrad is complicit in the various masteries associated with racism, imperialism, and the patriarchy. In this book, Harpham inquires not only into Conrad's work and reputation, but also into the idea of mastery as such."

     Elaine Jordan, ed. Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1996.

"This collection comprises eleven essays on key Conrad texts--'Heart of Darkness,' Nostromo, and The Secret Agent--meant to help the reader to assess the different critical and theoretical approaches which have emerged over the past thirty years. These approaches include postcolonial discourse, feminism, developments in Marxist critical theory as well as narrative theory and the influence of psychoanalysis. Essays include Ian Watt, 'Ideological Perspectives: Kurtz and the Fate of Victorian Progress'; Nina Pelikan Straus, 'The Exclusion of the Intended from the Secret Sharing'; Peter Brooks, 'An Unreadable Report: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Christopher L. Miller, 'The Discoursing Heart: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Edward W. Said, 'The Novel as Beginning Intention: Nostromo'; Fredric Jameson, 'Romance and Reification: Plot Construction and Ideological Closure in Nostromo'; Daphan Erdinast-Vulcan, 'Nostromo and the Failure of Myth'; Jim Reilly, 'A Play of Signs: Nostromo'; Terry Eagleton, 'Form, Ideology and The Secret Agent'; Aaron Fogel, 'The Fragmentation of Sympathy in The Secret Agent'; and Rebecca Stott, 'The Woman in Black: Unravelling Race and Gender in The Secret Agent.'"

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1912-1916. Vol. 5. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

"This is the fifth of eight projected volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. War broke out in 1914, halfway through the period of this volume. The letters from the last days of peace show Conrad finished Chance and writing Victory. Thanks in part to Doubleday's and Knopf's energetic publicity campaign in the United States and a new appeal to women readers, Chance brought unaccustomed commercial success as well as renewed critical esteem. yet Conrad feared creative exhaustion; both those who disparage and those who admire Victory will find evidence here for their case. For the Conrads, the war began during an ill-timed holiday in Poland. Letters tell the story of their flight from Cracow, and their chancy return to Britain. As Borys Conrad approached military age, joined up, and was sent to the Western Front, the family felt increasing anxiety. Conrad describes the sight and sound of zeppelins overhead, his new acquaintance, the powerful but erratic Lord Northcliffe, and his expeditions with the Royal Navy Reserve--his first extended absences from Jessie Conrad in many years. From the war years came the essay 'Poland Revisited' and The Shadow-Line; the latter, a story in which Conrad's own memories of his first command converge with the experience of Borys and other young soldiers. Other topics covered here include Suffragette campaigns, the Easter Rising in Dublin, the latest in French literature, the antics of the young John Conrad, and the loss of the Titanic and the Empress of Ireland."

     Pamela King. 'Like painting, like music . . .': Joseph Conrad and the Modernist Sensibility. Pamela King, 1996.

"King's book reconsiders Conrad's imagination in terms of its bewildering biographical points of origin, and its haunting clusters of predominantly painterly and sculptural imagery. To what sort of cultural milieu did Conrad belong? What sort of artists might have moved within, towards, or across, Conrad's social circle? In what ways are Conrad's images--particularly his painterly and sculptural images--informed by empathy towards an awareness of the emergent impulses of early modernist art? To what extent, in other words, is Conrad's modernist prose--or prose poetry--distinctively artistic in quality? These are questions and speculations, to which the critic can at best respond relatively tentatively after patiently considering available materials and probable correspondences. Emphasising the complexity of both Conrad's wide-ranging aesthetic acquaintances and Conrad's wide-ranging 'aesthetic' thematics, King suggests how Conrad's fiction resists monodimensional exegesis, generating fascinating constellations of symbolic 'haze' or 'glow,' rather than offering unambiguous statements of thematic 'kernel.' Looking beyond Conrad's recourse to the common everyday words' making up the 'solid pavement' of realist fiction and realist criticism, King's discussion of his evocative thematics considers the ways in which their frequently sculptural imagery conveys the quintessentially modernist sense of life as a process in which all that is 'solid' melts into air; at best, surviving, 'apart, indistinct and silent, in the pose of a meditating Buddha'; at worst, subsiding into 'something in a muddy hole.' King seeks to guide the reader through both the inner circles of this archetypal early modernist novelist's life. Like Kurtz, Conrad is a writer with 'something to say,' and like Marlow, King reminds the reader how complex and how absorbing such 'somethings' can be."

     Alex S. Kurczaba, ed. Conrad and Poland. East European Monographs, 1996.

"This collection of essays address such issues as Conrad's use of the Polish literary canon, his politics, the role of the Polish courtly tradition in his fiction, his representation of women, the impact of Polish on English style, and the influence of his works on 20th-century Polish artists such as Andrzej Wajda and Czeslaw Milosz."

     J. H. Stape, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 1996.

"In this collection, a number of Conrad scholars provide an account of Conrad's life and detailed readings of his major works. They discuss his narrative techniques, complex relationship with cultural developments of his time, influence on later writers and artists, and recent developments in Conrad criticism.  This book offers a wide-ranging introduction to the fiction of Conrad.  Through a series of essays aimed at both students and the general reader, this collection is meant to stimulate an informed appreciation of Conrad's work based on an understanding of his cultural and historical situations and fictional techniques.  A chronology and overview of Conrad's life precede chapters that explore significant issues in his major writings, and deal in depth with individual works.  These are followed by discussions of the special nature of Conrad's narrative techniques, his complex relationships with late-Victorian imperialism and with literary Modernism, and his influence on other writers and artists.  Each essay provides guidance to further reading, and a concluding chapter surveys the body of Conrad criticism."

     J. H. Stape and Owen Knowles, eds. A Portrait in Letters: Correspondence to and about Joseph Conrad. Rodopi, 1996.

"This book offers an annotated selection of letters to Conrad preserved in widely scattered archives. Augmented by letters about his work and personality, the volume also contains a calendar of all known surviving correspondence addressed to him. A supplement to the Cambridge Edition of The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, A Portrait in Letters is meant to present Conrad in the round, offering glimpses not only of the working writer but of the husband, parent, and friend. The letters offer new information about Conrad's literary circle and fill out numerous details about his career. Brief, authoritative biographies of the correspondents are included, and an introduction, description of editorial principles, and full index to the volume provide the scholarly contextualization and tools necessary for easy access to its contents."

     Mikolaj Henry Thierry. Joseph Conrad-Korzeniowski: His Indonesia, His Ships. Oficyna Wydawnicza Volumen, 1996.

     Russell West. Conrad and Gide: Translation, Transference and Intertexuality. Rodopi, 1996.

"This study examines the relations between the work of Conrad and the French Nobel Prize winner Andre Gide. Gide's translation of Conrad's Typhoon is read as a work belonging paradoxically to the oeuvres of both writers, where their respective preoccupations meet with illuminating results. Focusing also on other major works by Conrad and Gide, the study suggests that the intertextual and personal interaction between these two masters of 20th-century fiction was governed by processes of identification and projection, conflict between master and disciple and a consequent resistant reading of texts, and confrontation with linguistic and cultural heterogeneity. Issues of translation theory, psychoanalysis and intertextuality are brought together to offer a glimpse of a possible dialogue between literature and ethics."

     Christopher GoGwilt. The Invention of the West: Joseph Conrad and the Double-Mapping of Europe and Empire. Stanford University Press, 1995.

"By placing Conrad's fiction at the center of an examination of the term 'the West,' this study re-conceives the major contours of Conrad's work to show how the contemporary commonplace idea of the West emerged around the turn of the century from the combined and related phenomena of European imperial expansion and a crisis of democratic politics. The author argues that twentieth-century ideas of the West can be traced to the convergence of two distinct discursive contexts: the 'new imperialism' of the 1890's that gave wider currency to oppositions between East and West, and the influence of 19th-century Russian debates on Western European ideas of Europe. The work of Conrad is shown to be uniquely suited to studying the relation between these two cultural and political contexts, since they provided Conrad with his two great themes--colonialism and revolution."

     John W. Griffith. Joseph Conrad and the Anthropological Dilemma: 'Bewildered Traveller.' Clarendon Press, 1995.

"This is a detailed analysis of Conrad's early works in relation to 19th-century anthropology, Victorian travel writing, and contemporary anthropological theory. Conrad's early fiction originated as a response to his travels in so-called primitive cultures: Malaysia, Borneo, and the Congo. As a sensitive observer of other peoples and a notable emigre, he was profoundly aware of the psychological impact of travel, and much of his early fiction portrays both literal and figurative voyages of Europeans into other cultures. By situating Conrad's work in relation to other writings on 'primitive' peoples, Griffith attempts to show how his fiction draws on prominent anthropological and biological theories regarding the degenerative potential of contacts between European and other cultures. At the same time, however, Conrad's work reflected an anthropological dilemma: he constantly posed the question of how to bridge conceptual and cultural gaps between various peoples. As Griffith tries to demonstrate, this was a dilemma which coincided with a larger Victorian debate regarding the progression or retrogression of European civilization."

     Mahmoud Issa. Involvement and Detachment in Joseph's Conrad Fiction. Regnbue Tryk Borforlaget, 1995.

     Jakob Lothe. Conrad in Scandinavia. Social Science Monographs, 1995.

"This book presents a representative selection of Scandinavian Conrad criticism.  The contributors are from Sweden and Norway.  The first essay was originally published in 1923, the latest ones were written in 1994. Many of the contributions were originally published in one of the Scandinavian languages, and they have been translated, and in several cases revised and improved, exclusively for this volume.  Featuring essays on Conrad from different stages of Conrad criticism, this book also aims at presenting studies of works which Conrad published at different stages of his writing career. Essays include: Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation, Master of the Sea, In Joseph Conrad's Waters, Narrative and Ideology: Race and Class in The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness: White Lies, The Woman-in-Effect and the Heart of Darkness, Modernity and Melancholy: Narration, Discourse and Identity in Heart of Darkness, An Uneasy Relationship: Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now, Lord Jim: The Prison-House of Consciousness, Lord Jim and the Perils of Interpretation, Involvement and Detachment in Nostromo, The Subversions of the 'Debauch of the Imagination': Ethics and Aesthetics in Under Western Eyes, 'The Tale': Epistemological Uncertainty Dramatized through Three Concentric Tales."

     Gene D. Phillips. Conrad and Cinema: The Art of Adaptation. Peter Lang, 1995.

"The purpose of this book is to show how the wedding of fiction to film works out concretely in a book that focuses on the screen versions of the work of a single novelist, Joseph Conrad. Conrad is not only one of the greatest writers of this century, but has the distinction of having all of his major works committed to film, including Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness (as Apocalypse Now). Here is an in-depth study of the films of Conrad's fiction, solidly based on both literary and cinematic theory. Phillips conducted interviews with several of the notable directors who made Conrad films, including Sir Alfred Hitchcock and Francis Coppola."

     [George Ramsey, comp.] Richard Curle: The Pre-Eminent Conradian. Stone Trough Books, 1995.

     Martin Seymour-Smith. Joseph Conrad. Greenwich Exchange, 1995.

"In this new critical introduction to Conrad, Seymour-Smith tries to lay proper emphasis upon how the creative process worked itself out in the ever-reluctant Pole, and in particular discusses the powerful and crucial influence of Conrad's closest friend--the only man whom he would allow to write parts of his work--Ford Madox Ford. In addition to discussing the work of Conrad, Seymour-Smith provides a characteristically ironic and scathing commentary on many of the things that Conrad himself satirized: social arrangements, contemporary criticism. He tries to show exactly how Conrad always seems contemporary, always to be writing about now."

     Sharan Pal Singh. Novels of Melville and Conrad: Acts of Faith, a Critical Comparison. New Deep & Deep, 1995.

"This book attempts to show the author's capacity to distinguish between the ephemeral and the essential in the works of two great authors and a broad acquaintance with the main currents of English and American fiction. The hypothesis Singh puts forth attempts to skirt the shoals of proliferating critical commentary that can bog down the less wary. He takes into account the current literature on his subject and the capacity to use it in building up his argument, looking to present a fresh critical interpretation of his subject. In this comparative study of two major novelists, Singh attempts to analyse selected novels, in order to reassess artistry in relation to moral vision, while incorporating the insights of Sartre and Fanon along the way."

     V. K. Tewari. Joseph Conrad in Bakhtinian Dialogics. People's Publishing House, 1995.

"The whole perspective of Conradian criticism gets another look when this Indian critic roots his cultural critiques in the application of the urgent need for understanding the otherness of other thought in the study of novelness and novelisation as historical and political paradigms; devastates the colonial discourse of subverting the native histories and cultures; interrogates the forces of revolutionism and anarchism and repressive state apparatuses as evidenced by the multilevelled textual analyses of eight of Conrad's novels. Bakhtinian dialogics is the clear evaluative theory of analysis which is qualitatively distinct from the monological approaches of social fragmentation and atomization circumventing dialogue, heteroglossia, openendedness and polyphony. The dialogisation of the socio-political-ideological factors, of the social-ideologemes is indeed multivalenced and multilevelled providing immense scope for vast dimensions. Here is, perhaps, one of the first major literary attempts to study the oeuvre of Conrad from Bakhtinian angle, plus that of Fredric Jameson, Louis Althusser, Terry Eagleton and quite a few more theoreticians. This work argues for another approach in understanding the discourse in life through discourse art, which is intended to initiate many a student of literature towards unfolding new vector of critical appreciation. It is hoped that researchers and readers of Bakhtin and Conrad are especially going to benefit intellectually by this dialogical analysis."

     Robert Wilson. Joseph Conrad: Sources and Traditions. Weir Press. 1995.

"This book is a supplement to Wilson's earlier book Conrad's Mythology (1987) in which he argues that Conrad developed ideas drawn from comparative religion and science to create his fiction and expound his atheistic and humanistic philosophy. Conrad's early works were a development of his interest in comparative religion, while he later works were based mainly on ideas drawn from astronomy. Wilson discusses various aspects of Conrad's fiction: the Christian Conrad, the Classical Conrad, the domestic Conrad, the anthropologist Conrad, and the artist Conrad."

     John Batchelor. The Life of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. Blackwell, 1994.

"Batchelor uses archive material, as well as published sources, in an attempt to reveal the especially close relationship, at every stage of Conrad's writing career, between the life and the work. Conrad was both depressive and delinquent. He manipulated friends, such as Ford Madox Ford, Edward Garnett, and John Galsworthy, into relationships that went at least some way to meeting his urgent psychological needs. He suffered from virulent writer's block, and would accept substantial advances from publishers and his agent, J. B. Pinker, for works which he then found himself unable or unwilling to write. Many of his best-known works, Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, and Nostromo, for example, can be seen as forms of escape from uncongenial duties. Batchelor's study, which gives account of the complex and fugitive Polish background, reveals Conrad, the great writer, as being also one of the most tormented and self-defeating of our literary figures."

     Adam Gillon. Joseph Conrad: Comparative Essays. Ed. Raymond Brebach. Texas Tech University Press, 1994.

"The collection of essays demonstrates Gillon's comparative approach to Conrad. Gillon examines the affinities between Conrad's descriptive art and painting and film. Gillon traces the connections between Conrad and such writers as James and Nabokov and compares Conradian characters Prince Roman and Peter Ivanovitch. Gillon's background in Polish is an important influence on the essays in this collection."

     Mary Morzinski. The Linguistic Influence of Polish on Joseph Conrad's Style. East European Monographs, 1994.

"This linguistic analysis of Conrad's style focuses on the influence of his native Polish. The difference between the periphrastic tense and modal system of English verb forms and Polish morphological representation of aspect as a primary verbal category can cause difficulties when a native speaker of Polish shifts to English. A detailed analysis of Conrad's style indicates that some of his more noticeable non-native-sounding syntactic choices reflect the semantics inherent in the morphology of Polish aspect. Readers have often noted Conrad's unusual choice and placement of adverbs, particularly those indicating frequency and duration. Morzinski attempts to show that Conrad was attempting to express the features of Polish aspect by pressing the equivalent adverbial lexical items into his sentences, causing an otherwise native-like fluency to take on the non-native characteristic recognized as foreign flavor in his style."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad. Northcote House, 1994.

"Locating Conrad's work in the context of the writer's life and cultural milieu, Watts's study offers an introduction to the range and main phases of Conrad's literary development. Drawing out distinctive thematic preoccupations and technical devices in Conrad's writing, Watts explores and demonstrates his importance as a moral, social, and political commentator. Watts's critical discussions address recent controversial developments in the evaluation of this magisterial, vivid, complex, and problematic author."

     Keith Carabine, Owen Knowles, Wieslaw Krajka, eds. Contexts for Conrad. East European Monographs, 1993.

"This collection consists of 15 essays considering the impact of Conrad in sections on Conrad and things Polish, gender, and cultural contexts. Among the topics are reconstructing Conrad's conceptions of 'east' and 'west,' miscegenation in An Outcast of the Islands, and his relation to anarchist theories of language."

     Martin Ray. Joseph Conrad. Edward Arnold, 1993.

"This wide-ranging study provides detailed analysis of 5 of Conrad's principal works (Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes). It examines the extent to which the impact of Conrad's early life and his cultural inheritance is reflected in the themes of his books. Conrad's preoccupation with the crisis of language and the breakdown of community and individual identity is addressed and special attention is given to his distinctive narrative strategies, ranging from black comedy to nihilistic despair. Martin Ray's study attempts to bring another perspective to the work of one of the greatest Modernist writers."

     Andrew Michael Roberts, ed. Conrad and Gender. Rodopi, 1993.

"This collection of essays considers Conrad and his works in relationship to issues of gender.  Essays include Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Introduction'; Padmini Mongia, '"Ghosts of the Gothic": Spectral Women and Colonized Spaces in Lord Jim'; Scott McCracken, '"A Hard and Absolute Condition of Existence": Reading Masculinity in Lord Jim'; Rebecca Stott, 'The Woman in Black: Race and Gender in The Secret Agent'; Susan Jones, 'Representing Women: Conrad, Marguerite Poradowska, and Chance'; Laurence Davies, 'Conrad, Chance, and Women Readers'; Andrew Michael Roberts, 'Secret Agents and Secret Objects: Action, Passivity, and Gender in Chance' Robert Hampson, 'Chance and the Secret Life: Conrad, Thackery, Stevenson'; Monika Elbert, 'Possession and Self-Possession: The "Dialectic of Desire" in 'Twixt Land and Sea.'"

     Jim Reilly. Shadowtime: History and Representation in Hardy, Conrad and George Eliot. Routledge, 1993.

"Taking up Adorno's assertion that the crisis of 20th-century art is its inability to represent historical events, Reilly seeks the 19th-century roots of this problem and its articulation within the works of Hardy, Conrad and George Eliot. Drawing on the theories of Benjamin, Foucault, Hegel, Lukacs and Nietzsche, he constructs an argument across the entire period of historicism's triumph and decline.  Shadowtime considers 19th-century literature in the light of current radical historiography. It poses critical questions about literature's relation to all the cherished principles of historicism: origination, antiquity, historical reconstruction, gender, possession and the very concept of the Real. This book is a study of realism, modernism and the complex relations of history and aesthetics in the modern period."

    R. N. Sakar. A Critical Study of Joseph Conrad: The Personality behind Principle. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1993.

"This book studies Conrad's mostly unconscious psychological promptings behind his adopted method of treatment of themes, at one stage one kind at another stage another different kind, with the corresponding changes in his stylistic pattern. All these variations are argued to conform to a well-related system in the author's discernments."

     Cedric Watts. A Preface to Conrad. 2nd ed. Longman, 1993.

"Conrad, one of the greatest prose stylists in English literature, was a master at creating character and atmosphere. Watts provides an introduction to the life and works of Conrad. He begins with a lucid analysis of Conrad's background, setting him firmly in the context of his times. The book: outlines his life and cultural background and their effect on his work; examines his major works including Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Almayer's Folly and Nostromo; discusses Conrad's heroes and heroines; lists important people in Conrad's life and their effect on him. Watts' introduction to the life and works of Conrad is meant to be of great interest to general readers and students alike."

     Andrea White. Joseph Conrad and the Adventure Tradition: Constructing and Deconstructing the Imperial Subject. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

"Nineteenth-century adventure fiction relating to the British empire served to promote, celebrate, and justify the imperial project, asserting the essential and privileging difference between 'us' and 'them,' colonizer and colonized. White's study opens with an examination of popular exploration literature in relation to later adventure stories, showing how a shared view of the white man in the tropics authorized the European intrusion into other lands.  She then sets the fiction of Joseph Conrad in this context, arguing that Conrad in fact demythologized and disrupted the imperial subject constructed in earlier writing, by simultaneously--with the modernist's double vision--admiring the human capacity to dream but applauding the desire to condemn many of its consequences. She argues that the very complexity of Conrad's work provided an alternative, more critical means of evaluating the experience of empire."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Literary Characters: Marlow. Chelsea House, 1992.

"This collection is introduced by Harold Bloom and contains brief critical extracts about Marlow by Henry James, John Cowper Powys, Hugh Walpole, Joseph Conrad, Frances Wentworth Cutler, Ford Madox Hueffer, Virginia Woolf, Gerald Bullett, R. L. Megroz, Joseph Warren Beach, Leonard F. Dean, Albert J. Guerard, Harold Kaplan, J. W. Johnson, Norman Sherry, William W. Bonney, Stephen Zelnick, Gary Geddes, William M. Hagen, Daniel R. Schwarz, Jerome Meckier, Aaron Fogel, and Donald M. Kartiganer.  This collection also contains the following critical essays: Alan Warren Friedman, 'Conrad's Picaresque Narrator'; Jacques Berthoud, Heart of Darkness'; Ian Watt, 'Marlow and Henry James'; Garrett Stewart, 'Lying as Dying in Heart of Darkness'; Benita Parry, 'Lord Jim'; Mark Conroy, 'Paragon and Enigma: The Hero in Lord Jim'; Kenneth Simons, 'The Ludic Imagination: "Youth"'; Fred Madden, 'Marlow and the Double Horror in Heart of Darkness'; Anthony Winner, 'Lord Jim: Irony and Dream.'"

     Keith Carabine, ed. Joseph Conrad: Critical Assessments. 4 vols. Helm Information, 1992.

"In September 1903, Conrad wrote to H. G. Wells that a writer 'should go forth . . . casting a wide and generous net where there would be room for everybody, where indeed every sort of fish would be welcome, appreciated and made use of.' This collection attempts to cast just such a net over Conrad's extraordinary life as well over the sheer scale and variety of both his work and the responses to it. In contrast to other great English writers, Conrad experienced several 'lives': he spent his youth in Poland and Russia, his adolescence in France, his adult life as a mariner in the British Merchant Service; then, from the age of 37, following the publication in 1895 of Almayer's Folly, he spent the rest of his life in England as a writer. Between June 1896 when he began The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' through the completion of the holograph of Under Western Eyes in January 1910, Conrad experienced a burst of sustained creative energy (equaled only to Dickens in English literature) during which he also produced such masterpieces as Heart of Darkness, Typhoon, 'Amy Foster,' Lord Jim, Nostromo, and The Secret Agent. Included in this collection are responses to, and estimations of, Conrad's life and works; memories and impressions of the man and artist; reviews of all his output; articles on all his novels, novellas and short stories, on his autobiographies, plays, essays, sketches and letters; on his relationship to his Polish and French heritages and to Russian and American writers; on his relationship to his contemporaries and to Nineteenth Century European thought: and lastly, a section of 53 essays covering most aspects of his work."

     Robert Hampson. Joseph Conrad: Betrayal and Identity. Macmillan Press, 1992.

"Through attention to incidents of betrayal and self-betrayal in Conrad's fiction, Hampson traces the development of Conrad's conception of identity through the three phases of his career--the self in isolation, the self in society, and the sexualized self--showing how the early fiction negotiates the opposed dangers of the self-ideal and the surrender to passion; how the middle fiction tests the ideal code psychologically and ideologically; and how the late fiction probes sexuality and morbid psychology."

     Thomas J. Harrison. Essayism: Conrad, Musil, & Pirandello. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

"In this book Harrison attempts to perform two tasks, one practical, the other ideal: a critical analysis of the literary-philosophical work of three writers of the 20th century and the construction of a tentative groundwork for a theory of living. Essayism ultimately seeks to describe more than these writers' aesthetic and ontological positions--namely, a conscious bearing toward experience which those ontologies and aesthetics imply This bearing is concerned above all with the logic of action, with reasons for living in one way or another, with the possibility of enhancing those reasons. Moving from ontology to ethics by way of aesthetics, the six main chapters of this book are designed to be readable independently as well as in sequence. The relations between Conrad, Musil, and Pirandello emerge by analogy rather than direct comparison."

     Bruce Henricksen. Nomadic Voices: Conrad and the Subject of Narrative. University of Illinois Press, 1992.

"By applying recent theories of narrative and ideology, particularly those of Mikhail Bakhtin and Jean-Francois Lyotard, to the novels of Joseph Conrad's 'major phase,' Henricksen radically revises current assessments of Conrad's career. Anchoring his argument thematically in the relationship of the self and the community, Henricksen argues for a developmental trajectory in which the conservative, monologic discourse of The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' yields to the polyphonic narration of Under Western Eyes, in a move away from the grand narratives of Western imperialism and toward Conrad's fullest celebration of the open potential of human freedom. In the process, he reevaluates Conrad in relation to our present debate concerning self-hood and social justice in a postcolonial world."

     Owen Knowles. An Annotated Critical Bibliography of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1992.

"This newly researched bibliography is designed to provide a selective survey of Conrad scholarship and criticism in English from 1914 (when the first full-length study of Conrad's fiction was published) to 1990. It offers access to five main areas of material; primary texts and preliminary materials, such as reference books and bibliographies; introductory studies; full-length criticisms, symposia and general essays; studies of Conrad's individual works; and criticism devoted to more specialized aspects, ranging from entries on Conrad's ethical and technical preoccupations to those on his language, attitudes to the sea, women, imperialism and religion. All items in this bibliography are arranged chronologically in order to provide a basic outline of the historical development, landmarks and schools of Conrad criticism. Describes and evaluates nearly 600 studies, 1914-1990, of Joseph Conrad. The listing is chronological within sections on modern editions, reference, letters, biography, full- length and general studies, individual works, and aspects such as aesthetics, textual studies, and Conrad's Polish heritage. "

     Wieslaw Krajka. Isolation and Ethos: A Study of Joseph Conrad. East European Monographs, 1992.

"This book outlines a distinct synthesis of Conrad's output, formulated in terms of what Krajka argues are its two most important and characteristic aspects: isolation and ethos, whose relationship indicates a definite manifestation of the Conradian world view. All the analytical comments are subordinated to the discussion of these problems. Krajka based his research on a thorough and intensive examination of all of Conrad's writings and tried to avoid superficialities so as to objectify interpretive judgements as much as possible. The methodological foundation of this study is the concept of the literary work of art as a structure, i.e., a set of semantically significant and dynamically interconnected elements, subordinated to organizing principles (main lines of meanings), its explication depending upon higher-level structures (literary and extraliterary contexts). The interpretation of a text, which reveals its semantic and artistic uniqueness, richness, and the diversity of meanings. It was combined with synthesis, which gives an overall picture of Conrad's oeuvre while placing particular works in this picture and explaining their position in the history of literature and culture. Adoption of a synthetic perspective has resulted in the treatment of all Conrad's creations as one text of a higher order with clearly manifested parallels among them, with recurring themes and motifs that reveal the considerable uniformity of the Conradian visions of man and the world. Krajka suggests that this delineation of the diverse realizations of the crucial concepts of isolation and ethos and the abundance and productiveness of structural and semantic configurations generated by them testifies to the greatness of Conrad's masterpieces."

     Gene M. Moore, ed. Conrad's Cities: Essays for Hans van Marle. Rodopi, 1992.

"Conrad travelled widely, and many of the cities he visited appear as settings or references in his novels and stories. From Singapore to Genoa, from Vologda to Sulaco, the essays in this collection are meant to evoke a sense of 'Conrad's Cities' as he saw them, and discuss the implications of their use in his work as settings, as symbols or as 'topodialogic' correlatives. Some three dozen photographs, maps and drawings picture the places from which Conrad fashioned his fictions. Prefaced with a dedication by the novelist's grandson Philip Conrad, the seventeen essays in this volume include contributions by Jacques Berthoud, Eloise Knapp Hay, Paul Kirschner, Juliet McLauchlan, Ugo Mursia, Zdzislaw Najder, Ian Watt, Cedric Watts, and other well-known Conrad scholars and biographers."

     Ross C. Murfin. Lord Jim: After the Truth. Twayne Publishers, 1992.

"A tale of dramatic experiences in far away places and of the ongoing fight between the primitive and the civilized, Lord Jim is one of Joseph Conrad's most highly regarded works. His forceful style and perceptive treatment of very modern problems have earned him the respect and admiration of both the general reader and writers such as William Faulkner and Graham Greene. Lord Jim: After the Truth is only the second critical study devoted entirely to Conrad's most far-flung and disparate novel. It includes an introduction to biographical and historical background, a fast-paced survey of major critical response, chapters on the novel's significance, and a clearly organized and carefully developed reading of Lord Jim. Murfin argues that because Conrad's novel creates conditions that militate against one central viewpoint, it cannot be declared optimistic or nihilistic, any more than Jim can be called a hero or a failure. Lord Jim: After the Truth attempts to hold the reader's interest in these issues by aiming a multifaceted interpretation towards reader response. This study includes a discussion of the work's influence, historical context, and critical reception in addition to a chronology, an annotated bibliography, and an index."

     Brian Spittles. Joseph Conrad: Text and Context. St. Martin's Press, 1992.

"This book considers Conrad as a product of his time and circumstances. Spittles draws on letters, diaries, newspaper reports, magazine articles, and the popular fiction of the day, as well as Conrad's own work, to illuminate the political, social, intellectual and personal forces operating on him during the period 1870-1920.  Spittles weaves explanations of the relevant current events and ideas into a discussion of Conrad's stories and novels.  This study attempts to put Conrad into a new perspective, providing a discussion for students, teachers, and general readers."

     Malgorzata Trebisz. The Novella in England at the Turn of the XIX and XX Centuries: H. James, J. Conrad, D. H. Lawrence. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego, 1992.

"The time span of the publication of the novellas Trebisz selects embraces about forty years roughly from 1890 to 1930. Trebisz argues that the novella had a different significance for each writer James found its length most congenial for his artistic and editorial purposes; Conrad wrote his greatest masterpieces at the novella-length continuing the process started by James of forming the principles of the modern novel which had been becoming increasingly shorter; and D. H. Lawrence often re-worked his earlier short stories endowing them with the qualities of full-length novels."

     Richard Adams. Joseph Conrad: Heart of Darkness. Penguin, 1991.

"This chapter-by-chapter reading of Conrad's Heart of Darkness contains within it vivid analysis of the novella's characterization and themes, its impressionist style and its wonderfully intricate structural patternings. The enormous difference between initial idea and eventual understanding is a central concern in Heart of Darkness, a theme reflected in the subtle allusive way the whole story of Marlow's journey and his spiritual pilgrimage unfolds. Adams is a guide, enabling readers to arrive at their own interpretation of the novel."

     Richard Ambrosini. Conrad's Fiction as Critical Discourse. Cambridge University Press, 1991.

"Conrad's comments about the interpretation of his works have until now been dismissed as theoretically unsophisticated, while the critical notions of James, Woolf, and Joyce have come to shape our understanding of the modern novel. Ambrosini's study of Conrad's fiction as critical discourse makes an original claim for the importance of his theoretical ideas as they are formed and tested in the novels themselves. Setting Conrad's comments in this context of transformations in his narrative forms, Ambrosini defines Conrad's view of fiction and the artistic ideal underlying his commitment as a writer in a new and challenging way. Conrad's innovative techniques as a novelist are shown in the continuity of his theoretical enterprise, from the early search for an artistic prose and a personal novel form, to the later dislocations of perspective achieved by manipulation of conventions drawn from popular fiction. This reassessment of Conrad's critical thought offers a new perspective on the transition from the Victorian novel to contemporary fiction."

     Carl D. Bennett. Joseph Conrad. Continuum, 1991.

"This introduction to Conrad's life and work considers the range of his writings primarily from moral and ethical viewpoints. Following a concise biography, which shows a man whose temperament was shaped by the early death of his parents and the gloomy atmosphere of his native czarist-dominated Poland, as well as early disappointments with sea life and his writing career, Bennett goes on to discuss Conrad's novels and stories from the viewpoints of several psycho-moral character types: the falsely aware, the 'unconscious' but fortunate and able, and--most important--the tragically aware who come to realize their moral inadequacy and their inability to control their intentions or the consequences of their actions. Throughout, Bennett also places emphasis on other aspects of Conrad's art--his use of character, symbol, and point of view, which together fashioned to create some of the most haunting literary works of all time. This books seeks to reveal a man who struggled throughout his lifetime with the elusive ethical dimensions of human existence."

      Ashok Bhagawati. Politics and the Modern Novelist: Conrad's Conservatism. B. R. Publishing, 1991.

"Bhagawati argues that politics has been a central concern of a modern novelist such as Conrad. The peculiar position of his country, which was under Czarist rule, inevitably led Conrad to think in political terms. Instead of taking to political activism, however, Conrad tried to find the meaning of his life away from Poland in the distant seas. Conrad worked in the British Merchant Service, and he saw the process of the imperialism spread to the East and the folly as well as the glory in such an endeavor. His own personal predilections as a complex human being got woven into the history of those times in far off Eastern lands. The sea sustained Conrad's tenuous hold on life, which could not have been possible if the sea were not such a buoyant life line of trade and imperialist expansion. Though Conrad did respond to the problems that imperialism raised through an authentic response and a complex delineation of the issues, his commitments are more nationalist than imperialistic. His commitment to nationalism in a deeper sense makes Conrad critical of some aspects of imperialism. Bhagawati considers Conrad's response to the revolutionary ideas of the 18th and 19th centuries at length. Bhagawati argues that believing in nationalism, Conrad rejected revolution as an unnatural change, which only corrupts the human spirit and sees Conrad's complex moral position to be an intrinsic part of his psyche which believes in plurality not uniformity. Bhagawati believes that Conrad was a democrat while detesting its mass frenzy and hysteria and that Conrad's politics is a complex mixture of a modern temperament which could not accept anything at face value. Bhagawati concludes with a discussion of the relationship between the form and contents of Conrad's novels."

     Otto Bohlmann. Conrad's Existentialism. St. Martin's Press, 1991.

"Bohlmann argues that the major philosophical aspects of Conrad's novels display a powerful existential strain, foreshadowing many central concerns of twentieth-century modernism. Bohlmann focuses on the extent to which Conrad's fiction resonates with ideas, attitudes and even phrases reminiscent of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Marcel, Heidegger, Sartre and Camus. Setting out existential positions and pointing to their presence in Conrad, Bohlmann offers another understanding of Conrad without subjecting him to narrow classification. Bohlmann argues that Conrad shared the existential view that we are all thrown by chance into an absurd universe, abandoned to utter freedom of choice and action. He suggests that Conrad insists, like Camus, that every individual must rebel against the condition of mere functionalism induced by the obstacles that surround him or her, so as to create his or her own authentic selfhood--a Satrean 'essence,' or 'for-itself.' Bohlmann also argues that Conrad upholds Kierkegaard's demand that we forge a wider 'civic self' by relating to other people with full existential commitment, fidelity, communication, and love. Focusing on Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Under Western Eyes, The Secret Agent, and Victory, Bohlmann sees Conrad as displaying an existential awareness of life's tragic quality generated by the tension between limited, subjective man and his irrational world of Nietzschean multiplicity. He points also to Conrad's existential emphasis on the supremacy of emotions over abstract rationality, with particular stress on feelings such as alienation, despair, anxiety and nausea--which can be overcome through Heideggerian resolve that transcends nihilism and provides a personal sense of self-justification."

     Chris Bongie. Exotic Memories: Literature, Colonialism, and the Fin de Siecle. Stanford University Press, 1991.

"This book focuses on exotic literature at the turn of the 20th century and how it foreshadowed  turn of the next century. Earlier writers of exoticism had turned away from the West and its modernity, rejecting the social changes caused by industrialization and displacing onto 'savage' or 'primitive' cultures their aspirations for political freedom. By the turn of the 20th century, however, European nations had reduced vast areas of the globe to colonial status: this global exportation of Western cultural norms and economic systems had a critical effect on the literature of exoticism. Bongie concentrates on four writers--Jules Verne, Pierre Loti, Victor Segalen, and particularly Joseph Conrad--although he touches on a number of other writers, and even painters, like Paul Gauguin.  Making an explicit link between turn-of-the-century exoticism and the present day, the book concludes with a critical assessment of Pier Paolo Pasolini's neo-exoticist attachment to a supposedly revolutionary Third World in his poetry and literary criticism. The book's critical stance draws its basic assumptions from pensiero debole, the 'weak thought' of the contemporary Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo."

     Robert Burden. Heart of Darkness. Macmillan Education, 1991.

"The purpose of this book is to help delineate various critical approaches to Heart of Darkness. Its aim is to help the reader come to terms with the variety of criticism and to introduce him or her to further reading on the subject and to a fuller evaluation of a particular text by illustrating the way it has been approached in a number of contexts. In the first part of the book, a critical survey is given of some of the major ways the text has been appraised, specifically by means of biographical criticism, mythic criticism, psychoanalytic criticism, anthropological criticism, political criticism, narratological criticism, Marxist criticism, stylistic analysis, and in light of the Realist and Modernist movements. In the second part, Burden provides his own appraisal of the text from the position of discourse theory, allowing the reader the knowledge of his own particular approach from which his views may in turn be evaluated. The series therein hopes to introduce and to elucidate criticism of Heart of Darkness and to encourage participation as the critics debate."

     Nick De Marco. "Liberty" and "Bread": The Problem of Perception in Conrad, a Critical Study of Under Western Eyes. Marino Solfanelli Editore, 1991.

     Daphna Erdinast-Vulcan. Joseph Conrad and the Modern Temper. Clarendon Press, 1991.

"This study relates Conrad's works to the cultural critics of the late nineteenth century, the post- Nietzschean phase of modernity. It discusses 'faultlines'--ambiguities and apparent aesthetic ruptures--in nine of the major novels and novellas. These faultlines are diagnosed as the symptoms of an unresolved tension between Conrad's temperamental affinity with the Nietzschean outlook and his fierce ideological rejection of its ultimate implications. Presenting Conrad as 'a modernist at war with modernity,' the author studies the perpetual tug-of-war between the artistic will to meaning and the writer's susceptibility to the modem temper, both as a theme and as a structuring principle in his work. The modes of this struggle are defined as 'the failure of myth,' the 'failure of metaphysics,' and the 'failure of textuality.' This book draws on the work of Nietzsche, Vaihinger, Bakhtin, Heller, Macintyre, and other philosophers and cultural historians to present the ethical and epistemological issues which are interwoven with Conrad's aesthetics."

     Jordan Leondopolous. Still the Moving World: Intolerance, Modernism and Heart of Darkness. Peter Lang, 1991.

"This study argues that D.W. Griffith's accomplishment in Intolerance is, like Conrad's Heart of Darkness, a proto-modernist text. Both works exhibit an ahistoric consciousness of disorder, destruction and skepticism, and reflect--to different degrees--the aesthetic experimentalism of the early 20th century. Through a close analysis of Griffith's film and its manifold affinities with Conrad's tale--and more cursorily with the works of other exponents of modernism in the traditional arts--Leondopolous demonstrates that, contrary to the conventional criticisms of Intolerance as a cluttered, disjointed text, the film's eccentric form and unruliness are among the vital components of its meaning and modernity."

     Jeffrey Meyers. Joseph Conrad: A Biography. John Murray, 1991.

"Meyers narrates Conrad's extraordinary life and argues for many new connections between Conrad's life and his work. New models emerge for Kurtz in Heart of Darkness, for Razumov in Under Western Eyes, for Flora de Barral and Captain Anthony in Chance. He argues for the powerful influence of Jane Anderson on The Arrow of Gold and the significance of opera on The Rescue. He also discusses for the first time the unpublished film scenario, 'The Strong Man,' which Conrad wrote at the end of his life."

     Ruth L. Nadelhaft. Joseph Conrad. Humanities Press International, 1991.

"The book investigates the link between Conrad's writing and feminist reading by surveying his works from new feminist perspective. Working from a position which accepts that the notion of gender difference embraces interrelationship and reciprocity as well as opposition, Nadelhaft takes on the challenge of reassessing the problems inherent in confronting a 'phallocentric' literary canon, by investigating the processes involved in the translation of gender difference into the themes and structures of the literary text. Nadelhaft surveys briefly the development of feminist literary criticism and the broader questions of feminism which have been brought to bear on this practice, from the initial identification of 'phallocentrism,' through the tendency of early feminist critics to read literature as a sociological document, through to feminist criticism's current capacity to realign the discoveries of a wide range of disciplines in order to reassess theories of gender difference. The tendency of the feminist critic to privilege texts written by women and the notion that it might be possible to identify an autonomous tradition of 'women's writing' can offer a range of challenges to current feminist criticism, and Conrad's texts are considered in this light. Can there be a politics of feminist criticism? How might a theory of sexual difference be seen to be directly applicable to critical practice? The book represents a theory of gender difference, and, by assessing its applicability to the writings of Conrad, offers a revisionary interpretation of feminist critical practice."

     David R. Smith, ed. Joseph Conrad's Under Western Eyes Beginnings, Revisions, Final Forms: Five Essays. Archon Books, 1991.

"Essays include: Keith Carabine, "The Figure Behind the Veil: Conrad and Razumov in Under Western Eyes"; David R. Smith, "The Hidden Narrative: The K in Conrad"; David Leon Higdon, "Complete but Uncorrected: The Typescript of Conrad's Under Western Eyes"; Eloise Knapp Hay, "Under Western Eyes and the Missing Center"; Roderick Davis, "Crossing the Dark Roadway: Razumov on the Boulevard des Philosophes."

     Gavin Young. In Search of Conrad. Hutchinson Publishing Co., 1991.

"An addition to Gavin Young's travel books such as Return to the Marshes and Slow Boats Home, this book takes the form of a journey to Asia in the footsteps of Joseph Conrad, visiting all the places immortalized by Conrad and his fictional characters in works such as Lord Jim."

     Suman Bala. Joseph Conrad's Fiction: A Study in Existential Humanism. Intellectual Publishing House, 1990.

"In this book, Bala argues that in Conrad's fictional world the existential perception of the void is at the centre of things. Conrad, as early as the first decade of the twentieth century, became conscious of the human condition and explored human freedom and responsibility in an absurd world, but Conrad has no room for despair. As an existential humanist, he holds his faith in human courage and the human ability to face a hostile universe.  This book seeks to examine Conrad's major novels in the light of existential philosophy and to show that Conrad anticipates the modern humanistic school of existentialism."

     D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke. Joseph Conrad: Beyond Culture and Background. St. Martin's Press, 1990.

"This book does not provide a purely literary analysis of Conrad's fiction. Goonetilleke argues that that has been done often enough, and despite the structuralists and post-structuralists, he hold firmly the belief in the central need for judgement in literary study. He proposes to see Conrad's work as art in the context of relevant historical, political and biographical facts. He also suggests that such an approach, if it is to be profitable, must, in the first place, originate in and be controlled by a literary-critical sense. At the same time, one must be aware of the complexities of the relation between the world of the imagination and the world of historical, political and biographical facts. For another thing, facts, as they strike the imagination and are organised by it, undergo decisive selection and shaping. Facts themselves may be complex. The task is particularly challenging in the case of a writer such as Conrad: his origins and background are complicated, his life extraordinarily rich and varied (and difficult too), the milieu of his fiction, its themes and experiences extremely diverse. Goonetilleke also proposes to compare and contrast Conrad with minor and major writers."

     Robert D. Hamner, ed. Joseph Conrad: Third World Perspectives. Three Continents Press, 1990.

"In this collection, both Western and non-Western scholars discuss the works of Conrad. As a European writing about Imperialism in exotic lands, Conrad offers a confrontation between the cultures and peoples of the East and West. Issues of racial discrimination, imperialist exploitation, and accuracy of detail have long continued to interest Conrad's critics, though today an even sharper scrutiny of his works is called for. The essays included in this volume represent some of the most prominently cited issues in Conrad's fiction and, collectively, they shed light on the overall status of Conrad criticism, vis-a-vis Commonwealth literature. Essays include Hugh Clifford, 'The Genius of Mr. Conrad'; Florence Clemens, 'Conrad's Malaysia'; Hans van Marle, 'Jumble of Facts and Fiction: The First Singapore Reaction to Almayer's Folly'; D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke, 'Conrad's Malayan Novels: Problems of Authenticity'; Lloyd Fernando, 'Conrad's Eastern Expatriates: A New Version of His Outcasts'; Juliet McLauchlan, 'Almayer and Willems--"How Not to Be"'; J. C. Hilson and D. Timms, 'Conrad's "An Outpost of Progress" or, the Evil Spirit of Civilization'; Chinua Achebe, 'An Image of Africa'; Michael Echeruo, 'Conrad's Nigger'; Susan L. Blake, 'Racism and the Classics: Teaching Heart of Darkness'; C. Ponnuthurai Sarvan, 'Under African Eyes'; Wilson Harris, 'The Frontier of Which Heart of Darkness Stands'; Edward Said, 'Conrad: The Presentation of Narrative'; V. S. Naipaul, 'Conrad's Darkness'; Jean Franco, 'The Limits of the Liberal Imagination: One Hundred Years of Solitude and Nostromo'; and Peter Nazareth, 'Out of Darkness: Conrad and Other Third World Writers.'"

     Jeremy Hawthorn. Joseph Conrad: Narrative Technique and Ideological Commitment. Edward Arnold, 1990.

"This study argues that Conrad's artistic achievement depends on the interplay between technical accomplishment and ideological consciousness in his works. Hawthorn argues his case both through detailed analyses of aspects of Conrad's narrative technique (his use of free indirect discourse) and through interpretations of most of his major works (as well as some of his less well-known ones). His conclusion is that for Conrad craftsmanship alone is never enough: a firm moral and ideological anchorage must limit and direct his technique."

     Yves Hervouet. The French Face of Joseph Conrad. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

"Conrad has generally been regarded as a novelist with 'dual' Polish and English national affinities. This study argues for a triple identity by introducing the French face of Conrad's work, demonstrating that his knowledge of the French language and its literature has profound implications for the study of the novels. Hervouet documents chronologically the influence of French authors including Flaubert, Maupassant and Anatole France, building up a picture of Conrad at work. This first large-scale account of Conrad's involvement with a French literary, aesthetic and philosophical tradition provokes an important reassessment of his creative originality."

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1908-1911. Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, 1990.

"This is the fourth of eight projected volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. Conrad spent half the period of volume four writing Under Western Eyes and the other half recovering from the ensuing collapse. During the early months of 1908, the short story 'Razumov' began growing into a novel that embodied Conrad's appalled fascination with Russian politics, his misgivings about language, and his acute sense of loneliness. After the completion of the novel in 1910 and a vehement quarrel with J. B. Pinker, his agent, Conrad suffered a mental and physical breakdown whose effects lingered for many months. By the spring of 1911, however, he was able to resume the long-delayed Chance and enjoy a somewhat calmer relationship with the world. The tale of these years emerges vividly from the correspondence. Of special interest are frank critiques of John Galsworthy's work, manoeuvrings around the new and distinguished English Review, an indignant falling out with Ford Madox Ford, mecurial transactions with Pinker, enlightening accounts of writing in progress ('The Secret Sharer' and A Personal Record as well as the two novels), reactions to the tumultuous politics of the day, anecdotes about John and Borys Conrad, and evidence of new friendships with American and French writers, among them Andre Gide."

     Heliena Krenn. Conrad's Lingard Trilogy: Empire, Race, and Women in the Malay Novels. Garland Publishing, 1990.

"Conrad's first two novels, Almayer's Folly and an Outcast of the Islands as well as The Rescue are set in the Malay Archipelago and Borneo and share common characters. Krenn analyzes the trilogy, linked by the character of Captain Tom Lingard, as a narrative and stylistic unit."

     Bette London. The Appropriated Voice: Narrative Authority in Conrad, Forster, and Woolf. University of Michigan Press, 1990.

"London uses feminist theory, cultural criticism, cultural ethnography, and narrative theory in critiquing traditional and revisionist criticism."

     Michael Orange. Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Sydney University Press, 1990.

"This book is designed specifically for university undergraduates and provides an up-to-date and readable analysis which encourages independent thinking about Heart of Darkness. The approach Orange takes emphasises a close reading of the text, allied to an overview informed by recent trends in criticism and scholarship, with a further reference to the literary and historical context of both Conrad and Heart of Darkness. This book also includes an extensive bibliography of criticism on the novella."

     Martin Ray, ed. Joseph Conrad: Interviews and Recollections. University of Iowa Press, 1990.

"This volume of interviews and recollections shows Conrad's complex and exotic personality as remembered by an eclectic array of friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Impressions are recorded from such vastly different individuals as his fellow writers, Lawrence of Arabia, and a regular at his local pub, all of which combine to give the modern reader a sense of the veritable zoo of characters bounding off Conrad as he pursued his lonely career."

     Jim Reilly. Joseph Conrad. Wayland Publishers, 1990.

"This study introduces the reader new to Conrad to the life and work of this major writer and provides other approaches for those studying hi at school or college. The book opens with a biographical section which traces the roots of the contradiction in his personality between authority and rebellion and his work's interwoven themes of 'solidarity' and 'secrecy.' Detailed studies of 'Heart of Darkness,' The Secret Agent and The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' discuss Conrad's troubled confrontation with crucial issues of his age: colonialism, modern urban life and the meaning of work, as well as the innovations in style that make him a major influence on 20th-century literature."

     Catharine Rising. Darkness at Heart: Fathers and Sons in Conrad. Greenwood, 1990.

"This study of Conrad's fiction addresses the protagonist's struggle to find (or keep) his place in a world of men. Structured around Conrad's use and subsequent abandonment of Oedipal compromise, the book provides a Freudian and post-Freudian analysis of father/son relationships in Conrad's work. Defining the father as any older male with power and influence over a younger one, Rising examines wide thematic variations that show Conrad's obsessive concern with paternity--as an object either of fear and hatred or of longing."

     Brian Spittles. How to Study a Joseph Conrad Novel. Macmillan Press, 1990.

"This book is a guide meant to show the reader how to organise a critical response to Conrad's novels and short stories. It provides guidance on how to analyse Conrad's major works, showing students how to discuss the themes, characters, settings, plots, and tone of his fiction. In addition, it deals with the historical context of Conrad's writings and provides advice on how to discuss such matters as his complex use of narrators and narrative time, his views on politics, and his use of satire and irony. Particular works analysed include Youth, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, Victory and The Shadow-Line. The final chapter offers a step-by-step guide to how to write an essay or examination on a Conrad novel."

     Bruce Teets. Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography. Garland Publishing, 1990.

"A supplement to Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography of Works about Him (Teets and Gerber, 1971). The 2,000 items of this substantially annotated bibliography span a period of 80 years, beginning with Conrad's reception by his early critics, continuing with the critical reception of his works from 1895 to 1924, and then on for the 50 years following his death. Annotations covering 14 languages are included."

     David W. Tutein. Joseph Conrad's Reading: An Annotated Bibliography. Locust Hill Press, 1990.

"In this book, alphabetically arranged by author, lightly annotated listings reveal what Conrad read and, if known, when he read it."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. Penguin, 1990.

"After a brief survey of Conrad's career and turbulent personality, Watts discusses the background and sources of Nostromo before examining the novel and its techniques in detail. He comments on the critical reactions to Nostromo from its first serialization to the present and concludes by suggesting the imaginative pleasures offered by the richness of the text. Watts's flexible approach, by indicating a diversity of view points, directs the reader back to Conrad's own words with a greater understanding."

     Mark A. Wollaeger. Joseph Conrad and the Fictions of Skepticism. Stanford University Press, 1990.

"This book argues that Conrad's skepticism forms the basis of his most important works, participating in a tradition of philosophical skepticism that extends from Descartes to the present. Conrad's epistemological and moral skepticism--expressed, forestalled, mitigated, and suppressed--provides the terms for the author's rethinking of the peculiar relation between philosophy and literary form in Conrad's writings, and more broadly, for reconsidering what it means to call any novel 'philosophical.' Among the issues argued are Conrad's thematics of coercion, isolation, and betrayal; the complicated relations among author narrator, and character; and the logic of Conradian romance, comedy and tragedy. Wollaeger also offers a new way of conceptualizing the shape of Conrad's career, especially the 'decline' evidenced in the later fiction. The uniqueness of Conrad's multifarious literary and cultural inheritance makes it difficult to locate him securely in the dominant tradition of the British novel.  A philosophical approach to Conrad, however, reveals links to other novelists--notably Hardy, Forster, and Woolf--all of whom share in the increasing philosophical burden of the modern novel by enacting the very philosophical issues that are discussed within their pages. Conrad's interest as a skeptic is heightened by the degree to which he resists the insights proffered by his own skepticism."

     Joseph Dobrinsky. The Artist in Conrad's Fiction: A Psychocritical Study. UMI Research Press, 1989.

"This book investigates four hypotheses: (1) While the unconscious drives of an imaginative writer--of an 'artist' in Conrad's usual phrasing--are apt to be singularly strong, the practice of the calling wards off neurosis since it must rest on an exceptional ability to lay down one's anxieties, again and again, through their compulsively renewed symbolizations. (2) Both the content and the manner of the resultant texts, the only legitimate objects of literary criticism, can be probed in depth, as concealing and yet revealing the fantasy they rationalize, in search of an exonerating and identity-sustaining aesthetic applause. (3) In literary texts, attention should be paid not only to telltale imagery but also, with reference to Freud's Wit and the Unconscious, to latent wordplay (polyglot in the case of Conrad). (4) While the wide appeal of genuinely imaginative fiction--which subliminally depends on the reader's empathy and induced catharsis--assumes a representativeness of the subtext, the author's unique inner conflicts and the stages of one's highly cathected experience as a writer must also be echoed in one's fables.  With an emphasis on textual issues, Dobrinsky attempts to related Conrad's eminently confessional fiction to its two interacting inner springs: his private obsessions, as premature orphan, ambivalent son and nephew, guilt-laden Polish exile, and in latent references to Conrad's father--the propagandist, self-immolated poet, Apollo Korzeniowski--a no less committed preconscious reverie on the curses and blessings of this creative legacy and the attendant dilemmas of his own question for expression."

     Anthony Fothergill. Heart of Darkness: Open Guides to Literature. Open University Press, 1989.

"Heart of Darkness, one of the crucial literary works of the last hundred years, is also one of the most commented on. This guide does not try to add yet one ore account of what the novel is 'really about,' though it does introduce readers to the characteristic approaches the work has received, and helps them to adjudicate these. Rather, by a close and questioning scrutiny of the text, it draws attention to the way the work raises the major theoretical issue of reading itself. How do we read, how do we make meanings? And how do we represent these? The active process of reading the work seems to mimic the journey Marlow makes into the African interior: pitfalls and snags, alluring desires, frustrating delays and shocking glimpses of meaning characterize both. This guide suggests ways in which this can help us understand Marlow's own comprehending and telling of his experiences. For him, too, reading is inescapable. Thematic concerns like the portrayal of colonialism, the confrontation of the 'civilized' with the 'savage,' the representation of the 'Other' (for Marlow, the black or the woman) are all given fresh life when seen through this perspective. The importance of recognizing that Marlow's 'reading'--and Conrad's writing--always occurs within culture, within the historical and political assumptions and parameters of Conrad's own time, is emphasized, and helps readers toward a fuller awareness of their own activity."

     Owen Knowles. A Conrad Chronology. Macmillan Press, 1989.

"This chronology is designed to provide a clear and compact digest of Conrad's fascinating life as it developed from year to year. Its form--that of a series of diary or chronicle entries--caters to the reader who may wish to check quickly a single fact or find an answer to questions of 'Where, when, and with whom?' The main emphasis falls upon the unfolding course of a literary life spanning the years 1895 to 1924--its interacting and cumulative stresses, the history of composition and publication, the author's prodigious reading, and the significant friendships within the Conrad circle. With its up-to-date detail and accuracy of information, this chronology is meant to be an indispensable reference work for researchers, while students new to Conrad will find an integrated portrait of a unique literary career, with its significant phases, landmarks and rituals."

     Jakob Lothe. Conrad's Narrative Method. Clarendon Press, 1989.

"This book is a full-length attempt to apply recent developments in critical theory and practice to the whole canon of Conrad's works. Using a broadly structuralist approach, the book furthers the reader's understanding of Conrad's fiction by analysing the author's sophisticated narrative method--focusing on its devices, functions, variations, and thematic effects of implications. Narrative method is seen as an integral aspect of textual structure; but the book is not narrowly structuralist, for it is concerned with the relationship between Conrad's narrative method and the complex thematics which this diverse method serves to engender and shape. It also discusses the notions of major post-structuralist critics such as Edward W. Said and J. Hillis Miller. Lothe develops and applies a critical methodology which is flexible enough to be responsive to the varying interpretative problems Conrad's fiction presents."

     Lynn Sunderland. The Fantastic Invasion: Kipling, Conrad, and Lawson. Melbourne University Press, 1989.

"Rudyard Kipling, Joseph Conrad and Henry Lawson all wished to have their writings on colonial life accepted in London, the centre of the British Empire. During the 1890s each in turn discovered that the experiences he wrote about conflicted with the prevailing Imperial attitudes towards the colonies. The critics and the readers of the day wanted stories that reflected these Imperial attitudes. In the book, Sunderland seeks to establish the political, social and historical climate and examines the lives and short fiction of the three writers, focusing in particular on how they dealt with this crucial period in their development: Kipling, whose role as Imperial spokesman inevitably constrained the scope of his writing; Conrad, who rejected a similar role to present a more critical and complex view of Imperialism; Lawson, whose inability to resolve this and other conflicts led to a loss of direction in his later writing. This is a study of the early development of the short story, of Imperialism in literature, of the impact of the colonial writers, of Kipling, Conrad and Lawson--the flag bearers in the fantastic invasion."

     Cedric Watts. Joseph Conrad: A Literary Life. Macmillan Press, 1989.

"A sketch of Conrad's varied cultural background (emphasizing the Polish aspect) provides a biographical outline for this study, which then concentrates on the progress of Conrad's literary career, paying particular attention to his economic circumstances and the milieu of publishing. How did Conrad manage to survive, financially, during the twenty years between the publication of his first novel and his eventual attainment of security? What artistic compromises was he obliged to make? How did he manage to achieve, at last, spectacular success both among the critics and in the market-place? These questions provide the main themes of the study. Conrad often lamented his plight as a creative writer. This book suggests that he was remarkably fortunate in his circumstances, and that his publishers, his literary agent, his friends and collaborators deserve a large measure of the credit for the range and extent of his unique artistic achievement."

     Linda R. Anderson. Bennett, Wells, and Conrad: Narrative in Transition. St. Martin's Press, 1988.

"This book was begun as a response to the way critical discussions of the novel have frequently used the famous quarrel between Henry James and H. G. Wells to mark a decisive break in our understanding of the novel form. If before the quarrel the novel was a baggy monster, afterwards, taking up James's position, it was definitely art. Anderson is interested in the way historical definitions of the novel were, by critical sleight of hand, transformed into evaluative ones and how it was difficult to think about Wells except from the other side of this critical debate which saw him as simply wrong. In this book Anderson attempts to recover a historical dimension for that quarrel through an understanding of the ideas of and the debates about fiction in the two decades from 1890 to 1910. She focuses on the work of Arnold Bennett, H. G. Wells and Joseph Conrad, all of whom began to write in the 1890s and whose major work, she argues, was done between those dates. Anderson suggests that all three writers were having to respond to a major re-definition of the idea of the novel and its relationship to reality in the period and their novels, as well as developing their specific imaginative visions, and that they were engaged in maintaining a difficult balance between the increasingly polarised claims of society and art. Although the originality of each of the writers is acknowledged, their ideas and the structure of their narratives are also explored as a response to the historical situation which they shared."

     John Batchelor. Lord Jim. Unwin Hyman, 1988.

"Conrad's Lord Jim can in many ways be seen as the first 'modern' novel. This full study of the book emphasizes the outstanding historical and artistic significance of Conrad's masterpiece. Batchelor pursues the ways in which Conrad dramatizes with unprecedented fidelity a relationship between friends and also explores what for Conrad is clearly a central truth about the human condition, namely the inalienable loneliness of humanity. The book provides a full discussion of the biographical and literary contexts of the novel, making use of the original manuscript and tracing the literary influences and sources of Conrad's writing. It also considers the novel's technical innovations, including Conrad's 'impressionism' and its method dramatization. Further chapters are devoted to a detailed commentary on the text and the book concludes with a study of the novel's critical reception since its first publication."

     Mario Curreli, ed. The Ugo Mursia Memorial Lectures: Papers from the International Conrad Conference, University of Pisa, September 7th-11th, 1983. Mursia International, 1988.

"As the title suggests, this is a collection of essays from the International Conrad Conference University of Pisa, September 7th-11th, 1983.  The collection is dedicated to the memory of Ugo Mursia. Essays include Mario Curreli, 'Ugo Mursia: A Sketch with a Bibliography'; Sylvere Monod, 'Editing Conrad . . . for Whom?'; Ian Watt, 'Comedy and Humour in "Typhoon"'; Carlo Pagetti, 'Capt. MacWhirr between Form and Storm'; Todd K. Bender, 'Conrad's Lexicon'; J. H. Stape, 'Conrad "Privately Printed": The Shorter and Wise Limited Edition Pamphlets'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'The Sisters: A Grandiose Failure'; Jan Verleun, 'Conrad's Denouements: The Early Phase'; Keith Carabine, 'From Razumov to Under Western Eyes: The Dwindling of Natalia Haldin's "Possibilities"'; Gaetano D'Elia, 'Let Us Make Tales Not Love'; Adam Gillon, 'Hand Imagery in Selected Works of Joseph Conrad'; Juliet McLauchlan, 'A Reconsideration of The Rescue'; Frederick R. Karl, 'Life into Art: The Craft of Conrad and Conrad's Craft'; Joseph Dobrinsky, 'From Coal to Diamond: A Psychobiographical Reading of Axel Heyst's Progress in Victory'; Mario Domenichelli, 'The "Fair Harlequin" and the "Black Lady": Conrad, Shakespeare and Oscar Wilde'; Paola Pugliatti, 'From Narrative to Drama: Conrad's Plays as Adaptations'; Robert G. Hampson, '"If you read Lombroso": Conrad and Criminal Anthropology'; Hans van Marle, 'Conrad and Garibaldi'; Michael J. Larsen, 'Conrad and Coppola on the Struggle for Hearts and Minds'; Franco Marenco, '"Toil" vs. "Consciousness" in Conrad's Work'; Jetty de Vries, 'Conrad in Holland'; Ivo Vidan, 'Conrad in His Blackwood's Context'; Cedric Watts, 'Conrad's Hidden Texts.'"

     Gail Fraser. Interweaving Patterns in the Works of Joseph Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1988.

     Kenneth Graham. Indirections of the Novel: James, Conrad, and Forster. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"The purpose of this book is to investigate the detailed strategies of three masters of indirection in the early modern novel: James, Conrad, and Forster. Different though the three are from one another, they are linked by this historically crucial development they each represented in the technique of fiction: the deployment of a radically new openness, obliquity, and contradictoriness of narrative forms, both in the large-scale movements of narration and in the smallest details of descriptive language, scene, and dialogue. And what connects them even more profoundly, below this level of technical innovation and virtuosity, is that their innovations articulate, and articulate precisely, a shared response to a world of new uncertainty and danger. They are all writers of the brink. Their narrations waver, take risks, are always on the edge of retraction or contradiction. Private dreams and fears suddenly change the direction of a scene or a paragraph. Intellectual or moral scruple enforces a quick reversal, a renunciation; imaginative desire swells into idyll, or the image of escape and a new start; an impassioned responsiveness to the world-as-it-is produces a cacophony of arguing voices, a quick temporary compromise, a sardonic shrug in the narrating. In each of these three novelists is combined, in the most lambent interplay, the highest degree of artistic, moral, and intellectual awareness with the most self-betraying revelations of unreconciled feeling: control against risk and disarray, sophistication against nostalgia, authoritative assertion against self-testing by irony or by whimsy or, in James's phrase for the form-seeking of the artist, by some 'deep difficulty braved.' Vulnerability is their obsession; the tell-tale vulnerability of their fictional characters, on behalf of all human vulnerability; and, not least, their pressing need as artists to find a form that is clear and definite yet will itself also be vulnerable, in the sense of being perpetually open, pliable, and sensitive to every nuance and change of fictional situation and of narratorial sensibility."

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1903-1907. Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"The period covered by this third of a projected eight volumes marks the years when Conrad stood at the height of his powers. It was during this time that he completed Nostromo and The Secret Agent. Yet, it was also a time of great personal unhappiness: his plans for leisurely, contemplative work were constantly interrupted by dangerous illnesses in the family, his own bad health, financial worries, and the pleas of editors desperate for copy. Conrad maintained his correspondence with old friends such as Galsworthy, Wells, and Ford, and developed a number of new friendships. This is also the period when Conrad became absorbed in political fiction, reflected in an intriguing series of letters dealing with Poland, the Congo, Latin America, and censorship. As always, the letters to his agent J. B. Pinker provide a detailed (and largely unpublished) account of the writer's monthly and weekly plans and literary commitments."

     John Lester. Conrad and Religion. St. Martin's Press, 1988.

"This book looks at the state of Conrad's religious belief (often taken for granted) and argues against much of the thinking in certain areas, particularly the gloomy outbursts that fill a number of his letters. It argues for Conrad's need for a creed and contends that this could not be satisfied by established faiths which are not a positive element of his fiction. Conrad's extensive use of religious imagery and language is identified as an important key to understanding his major themes and concerns, for it suggests that he was acutely aware of the spiritual cause of humanity's current ills and sceptical of the vaunted attempts to cure them."

     Martin Ray, ed. Joseph Conrad and His Contemporaries: An Annotated Bibliography of Interviews and Recollections. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 1988.

"The aim of this bibliography is to identify and annotate publications which record recollections of Joseph Conrad by those who knew or met him. In the selection of items for annotation, preference has been given to those recollections which have a literary or biographical interest, and this criterion has determined both the kind of items selected and the degree of annotation which a chosen item has received. Recollections of Conrad which give merely a pen portrait of him were omitted, and such descriptions are not annotated in items which are included. The opinions of his friends about his works are excluded. Priority throughout has been given to those items which record what Conrad said about himself and his writing."

     Steve Ressler. Joseph Conrad: Consciousness and Integrity. New York University Press, 1988.

"Ressler argues that the problem of integrity, the struggle to affirm self in the fact of devastating experience and tragic reality, is at the heart of Conrad's moral preoccupations. Concentrating on five principal works, treated chronologically, beginning with 'Heart of Darkness,' followed by Lord Jim, Nostromo, 'The Secret Sharer,' and concluding with Under Western Eyes, Ressler seeks to demonstrate a coherent and unified thematic development in Conrad's fiction centered on his abiding concern with integrity. Ressler argues that integrity evolves out of the conflict between Conrad's belief in the self-affirming possibilities of action and the imperative to test the moral substance of his characters, and Ressler presents an overview that considers integrity as a developing concept and places his analysis of Conrad's moral issues within a perspective of modernism."

     Jetty Verleun-van de Vriesenaerde, ed. Conrad Criticism 1965-1985: Heart of Darkness. Phoenix Press, 1988.

     Jetty Verleun-van de Vriesenaerde, ed. Conrad Criticism 1965-1985: The Nigger of the "Narcissus." Phoenix Press, 1988.

     Ian Watt. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

"This book provides a close reading of Nostromo, as well as an account of its historical, cultural, and intellectual background, a discussion of its influence, and a guide to further reading. Conrad's great novel is a rich study not only of a typical South American country, but of the politics of any underdeveloped country, and for this reason it is permanently topical. Watt addresses Conrad's concerns when writing the work, and provides an accessible introduction, taking account of background, history and politics, and reception and influence."

     Anthony Winner. Culture and Irony: Studies in Joseph Conrad's Major Novels. University Press of Virginia, 1988.

"Conrad's major novels--Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes--tell of illusions and betrayals, dreams and lies. Ambiguity, contradiction, and irony so dominate the narratives that the more closely one reads, the more difficult it becomes to know what is real or what is true. While Conrad's impressionism teaches one to see, his irony casts doubt on the meaning of what one has seen. Facts have little value, yet beliefs are futile or hollow because they ignore facts. Irony turns every certainty into uncertainty. Even the cultural values upon which the irony seems to rest are often mocked. This perplexity, which is the binding force of Conrad's art, is examined in Culture and Irony. Winner sees each of Conrad's novels as a variation on his essential concern: what happens when Victorian cultural faith collapses into the crisis of meaning out of which modern literature emerges? He explains that Conrad believed in something akin to Matthew Arnold's 'culture' (fidelity to the moral truth of culture will keep anarchy at bay) and that he combined this belief with an awareness that the values that once sheltered the lives of ordinary, decent people no long function in contemporary society. For Conrad, traditional culture is an illusion, but illusion is society's only hope. Winner argues that Conrad's use of romantic irony to maintain faith in 'ethical progress' becomes increasingly hopeless. In the last of Conrad's major novels, Under Western Eyes, darkness can no longer be held in check by this irony. His sole hope for culture then rests in those good women who disdain irony. As Winner argues, however, Conrad's idealization of women has always been tinged with condescension and distrust, and this hope may be read as the darkest of his ironies."

     Gary Adelman. Heart of Darkness: Search for the Unconscious. Twayne Publishers, 1987.

"Conrad's captivating Heart of Darkness endures not only as a brilliantly innovative and continually controversial work, but also as the exemplary portrayal of the human capacity for good and evil. In this introductory study, Adelman tries to uncover political, metaphysical, and prophetic insights through a close analysis of the text. He attempts to clarify the novel's suggestive narrative and recurring symbols to illustrate how Conrad dramatizes an internal, psychological process: the surfacing of savage latent impulses in the absence of social restraints. Adelman's examination of the novel's historical, cultural, and intellectual background seeks to make Conrad's multilayered themes and opulent prose clearly accessible. Special treatment is given to the recent debates surrounding the controversial racial implications in Heart of Darkness."

     Paul B. Armstrong. The Challenge of Bewilderment: Understanding and Representation in James, Conrad, and Ford. Cornell University Press, 1987.

"This book has three central, related concerns. It tries first to describe precisely and in detail the epistemologies implicit in the adventures of interpretation which the characters undergo in the novels of Henry James, Joseph Conrad, and Ford Madox Ford. For these pivotal writers in the history of the novel, the act of understanding is a drama in its own right, and we should consequently distinguish with some care the similarities and differences that mark their attitudes toward knowing. Second, however, their investigations of understanding also lead them to experiment with the workings of representation. Their narrative experiments expose the ways in which the conventions of realism take advantage of our every-day epistemological habits in order to give us an illusion of immersion in a lifelike world. Third, and consequently their strategies of representation are a challenge to the reader to reflect about realism and interpretation. James, Conrad, and Ford manipulate the readers response to their works so as to educate about processes of construing and creating meaning, which usually go unnoticed in our unreflective engagement with objects, people, and texts. The argument joining these three concerns is that James, Conrad, and Ford help inaugurate the self-consciousness of the modern novel about signs and interpretation by shifting the focus of the genre from constructing lifelike worlds to exploring the dynamics of world construction."

     Ted Billy, ed. Critical Essays on Joseph Conrad. G. K. Hall, 1987.

"Billy's introduction begins with biographical material relevant to Conrad's fiction and proceeds to a discussion of his letters and personality before presenting an overview of the major critical questions associated with Conrad's work. These include questions of Conrad's place in literature, especially his modernity, his technical experimentation, his language, and his association with Ford and impressionism. The bibliography of works Billy cites in his discussion are meant to be helpful to students of Conrad's novels. In his selection of essays, Billy chooses five which provide overviews of different critical aspects of Conrad's work: historical perspective, narrative structure, plot, and language. Each of the remaining six essays concentrates on a major novel: Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, Victory, Under Western Eyes, and The Secret Agent. The range of critical stances covers the whole critical spectrum from traditional New Criticism to postmodern approaches. Essays include: Zdzislaw Najder, 'Conrad in His Historical Perspective'; Edward W. Said, 'Conrad: The Presentation of Narrative'; Martin Ray, 'Language and Silence in the Novels of Joseph Conrad'; Cedric Watts, 'Conrad's Covert Plots and Transtextual Narratives'; John F. Van Dornelen, 'Conrad and the Power of Rhetoric'; Ian P. Watt, 'The Ending of Lord Jim'; Jerry Wasserman, 'Narrative Presence: The Illusion of Language in Heart of Darkness'; Leonard Orr, 'The Semiotics of Description in Conrad's Nostromo'; William W. Bonney 'Narrative Perspective in Victory: The Thematic Relevance'; Penn B. Szittya, 'Metafiction: The Double Narration in Under Western Eyes'; William Bysshe Stein, 'The Secret Agent: The Agon(ie)s of the Word.'"

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Chelsea House, 1987.

"Conrad's Heart of Darkness is not simply a critique of colonialism in the Congo; it is a tale of the human tendency toward self-endangering corruptibility. Bloom suggests it has taken on some power of myth. This book presents 20th-century criticism on Heart of Darkness through extracts of critical essays by well-known literary critics. This collection of criticism also features a short biography on Conrad, a chronology of the author's life, and an introductory essay written by Bloom. Essays include Harold Bloom, 'Introduction'; Albert J. Guerard, 'The Journey Within'; James Guetti, 'Heart of Darkness: The Failure of Imagination'; C. B. Cox, 'Heart of Darkness: A Choice of Nightmares?'; Bruce Henricksen, 'Heart of Darkness and Gnostic Myth'; R. A. Gekoski, 'Heart of Darkness'; Ian Watt, 'Heart of Darkness and Nineteenth-Century Thought'; John Tessitore, 'Freud, Conrad, and Heart of Darkness'; Peter Brooks, 'An Unreadable Report: Conrad's Heart of Darkness'; Aaron Fogel, 'Forceful Overhearing.'"

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. Chelsea House, 1987.

"This text presents critical essays that reflect a variety of schools of criticism on this novel. This volume also contains an introductory essay by Bloom, critical biographies, notes on the contributing critics, a chronology of the author's life, and an index. Ian Watt ('The Ending') deems the novel's end to be an intersection of romance and tragedy in which Jim preserves dignity in self-sacrifice, and the deconstructionist J. Hillis Miller ('Lord Jim: Repetition as Subversion of Organic Form') underscores the novel's self-referentiality and its therefore enigmatically protean interpretation. Other essays include: Elliott B. Gose, Jr., 'The Truth in the Well'; Peter J. Glassman, 'An Intelligible Picture: Lord Jim'; D. M. Halperin, 'Lord Jim and the Pear Tree Caper'; Suresh Raval, 'Narrative and Authority in Lord Jim: Conrad's Art of Failure'; Daniel Cottom, 'Lord Jim: Destruction Through Time.'"

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad's Nostromo. Chelsea House, 1987.

"This text presents critical essays that reflect a variety of schools of criticism on this novel. This volume also contains an introductory essay by Bloom, critical biographies, notes on the contributing critics, a chronology of the Conrad's life, and an index. Nostromo's magnitude is discovered in the diversity of the critical response to it. Robert Penn Warren ('"The Great Mirage": Conrad and Nostromo') explores the novel's moral and dramatic strength; George Levine ('Continuities and Discontinuities: Middlemarch and Nostromo') places the book authoritatively within that tradition of great novels such as Middlemarch from which some previous critics have excluded it; Dorothy Van Ghent ('Guardianship of the Treasure: Nostromo') sifts through its folkloric and mythic aspects; and Aaron Fogel ('Silver and Silence: Dependent Currencies in Nostromo') reads it in terms of its dependent currencies of silver and silence. Other essays include: Kiernan Ryan, 'Revelation and Repression in Conrad's Nostromo'; T. McAlindon, 'Nostromo: Conrad's Organicist Philosophy of History'; Martin Price, 'The Limits of Irony'; and Stephen K. Land, 'Four Views of the Hero.'"

     Patrick J. Whiteley. Knowledge and Experimental Realism in Conrad, Lawrence, and Woolf. Louisiana State University Press, 1987.

     Robert Wilson. Conrad's Mythology. Whitson, 1987.

"Wilson analyzes Conrad's multi-level style of writing--a tri-partate structure consisting of rendering, or the use of realistic details to present a convincing story; symbol patterns, or allusive details surrounding characters; and a final meaning, or the philosophical abstractions to be deduced from his books."

     Harold Bloom, ed. Modern Critical Interpretations: Joseph Conrad. Chelsea House, 1986.

"This book gathers a representative selection of contemporary criticism as well as an introductory essay by Harold Bloom, a bibliography, and a chronology. Essays include: Ian Watt, 'Conrad Criticism and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Edward W. Said, 'The Past and the Present: Conrad's Shorter Fiction'; Norman N. Holland, 'Style as Character: The Secret Agent'; R. W. B. Lewis, 'The Current of Conrad's Victory'; Ian Watt, 'Impressionism and Symbolism in Heart of Darkness'; Joan E. Steiner, '"The Secret Sharer": Complexities of the Doubling Relationship'; Daniel Melnick, 'The Morality of Conrad's Imagination: Heart of Darkness and Nostromo'; Adam Gillon, 'Under Western Eyes, Chance, and Victory'; Ruth Nadelhaft, 'Women as Moral and Political Alternatives in Conrad's Early Novels'; J. Hillis Miller, 'Lord Jim: Repetition as Subversion of Organic Form'; Martin Price, 'The Limits of Irony: Lord Jim and Nostromo'; Aaron Fogel, 'Silver and Silence: Dependent Currencies in Nostromo.'"

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1898-1902. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, 1986.

"This is the second of a projected eight volumes comprising all the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. The period covered by this volume, 1898-1902, was one of considerable achievement and anxiety for Conrad: both factors are reflected in these letters. The birth of his first child, the death of Stephen Crane, the murder of a friend's son, an encounter with an early X-ray machine and wars in Cuba and South--these events forced Conrad to face the problems of identity in terms of family, nation, history, and the cosmic order. At the same time, his work consciously began to assume a distinctively 'modern' quality, for this is the period of 'Youth,' 'Amy Foster,' 'Typhoon,' Lord Jim, and 'Heart of Darkness.' Among the abundance of unpublished writing are letters to Galsworthy, his pupil, friend, and benefactor; to Pinker, his newly acquired agent; and, most strikingly, to Ford Madox Ford, his partner in an improbable but spirited collaboration. Often funny, always thoughtful, full of verbal energy even in the toils of severe depression, the letters in volume two present Conrad at a crucial though vulnerable moment of his life and literary career."

     David Lucking. Conrad's Mysteries: Variations on an Archetypal Theme. Edizioni Milella, 1986.

"Lucking discusses the religious conception, a conception, he argues, to which Conrad was irresistibly drawn as providing the only morally acceptable account of experience, as it informs, and is qualified by, the rationalist outlook to which the author was intellectually committed.  The tension that makes itself felt on the personal level as a compulsion to seek secular solutions to problems which are essentially religious in character manifests itself in the public domain of the written word as a radical ambivalence regarding certain areas of experience, an ambivalence which at times assumes the status of a formal dialectic in the author's work.  Introduced into experiential contexts which they fail to compose except parodically, the religious metaphors and mythic patterns of which the author avails himself to articulate a searching critique of modern life, illuminating the shortcomings of a world in which they can often survive only as caricatures."

     Norman Page. A Conrad Companion. Macmillan, 1986.

"Conrad is now recognized as one of the founding fathers of modernism and one of the greatest novelists to have written in the English language. His life and work are full of fascination as well as of pitfalls for the unwary. Exceptional, even in some respects unique, in his background, complex in his personality, dedicated to his art but plagued by failure and ill-health, the real Conrad is a far cry from the simple master mariner of popular legend, amiably turning his experiences into yarns of seafaring life. Earlier accounts of his life and work have often suffered from taking his own versions of the truth at face value. The most reliable recent scholarship has effected a 'demythification' of Conrad, and there has been much revision of what had previously been taken for granted. This volume synthesizes some of the most important and up-to-date findings of recent biographers and critics. It is intended both for the student who wishes to acquaint himself with the outlines of Conrad's career and to gain an overview of his work, and also for the reader who already knows his Conrad but will often need to check a date, name or fact. Five biographical sections-- 'A Conrad Chronology,' 'A Conrad Who's Who,' 'Conrad's World,' 'Conrad Observed,' and 'Conrad's Languages'--are followed by sections devoted to his fictional and non-fictional writings in which the student and reader will find information on the genesis, composition, publication and reception of Conrad's books together with an indication of some of the main lines of interpretation, criticism and evaluation. There are also a filmography and a select bibliography."

     Suresh Raval. The Art of Failure: Conrad's Fiction. Allen & Unwin, 1986.

     Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Rescue. Garland Publishing, 1985.

     Todd K. Bender and James W. Parins. A Concordance to Conrad's Romance. Garland Publishing, 1985.

     Raymond Brebach. Joseph Conrad, Ford Madox Ford, and the Making of Romance. UMI Research Press, 1985.

     Mark Conroy. Modernism and Authority: Strategies of Legitimation in Flaubert and Conrad. John Hopkins University Press, 1985.

     Aaron Fogel. Coercion to Speak: Conrad's Poetics of Dialogue. Harvard University Press, 1985.

"Novelists have individually distinctive ideas of dialogue, Fogel argues. In this analysis of Conrad's narrative craft he explores--with broad implications--the theory and uses of dialogue. Conrad's was a distinctive reading of the English language conditioned by his particular idea of forced speech and forced writing. Fogel attempts to show how Conrad shaped ideas and events and interpreted character and institutions by means of dialogues representing not free exchange but various forms of forcing another to respond. He applied this format not only to the obvious political contexts, such as inquisition or spying, but also to seemingly more private relations, such as marriage, commerce, and storytelling. His idea of dialogue shaded the meanings he gave to words--even to characters' names. Conrad is particularly interested in scenes in which a speech-forcer is surprised, repudiated, or punished. Fogel concludes that Conrad increasingly saw the punishment of the speech-forcer as classically related to Oedipus inquiries, in which the provided answers rebound upon and destroy the forcer. This punishment is--as Shakespeare, Scott, and Wordsworth also dramatically intuited--the classical Oedipal dialogue scene. Fogel's analysis ranges widely over Conrad's fiction but focuses especially on Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Under Western Eyes. His readings offer a balanced critique of Mikhail Bakhtin's theories about dialogic. Conrad's novels have many of the features Bakhtin identified as dialogical; but he was preoccupied with coercion in dialogic form. Fogel proposes that to understand this form is to begin to reconsider our political and aesthetic assumptions about what dialogue is or out go be."

     Asher Z. Milbauer. Transcending Exile: Conrad, Nabokov, I. B. Singer. University Press of Florida, 1985.

     Ross C. Murfin, ed. Conrad Revisited: Essays for the Eighties. University of Alabama Press, 1985.

"This collection of essays includes Ross C. Murfin, 'Introduction: Conrad in the Eighties'; Frederick Karl, 'Three Problematical Areas in Conrad Biography'; J. Hillis Miller, 'Heart of Darkness Revisited'; Bruce Johnson, 'Conrad's Impressionism and Watt's "Delayed Decoding"'; Hunt Hawkins, 'Conrad and the Psychology of Colonialism'; Avrom Fleishman, 'The Landscape of Hysteria in The Secret Agent'; H. M. Daleski, 'Victory and Patterns of Self-Division'; Robert Caserio, 'The Rescue and the Ring of Meaning'; Daniel R. Schwarz, 'The Continuity of Conrad's Later Novels.'"

     Notes from the Editors: Eight Tales by Joseph Conrad. Franklin Library, 1985.

     Helen Funk Rieselbach. Conrad's Rebels: The Psychology of Revolution in the Novels from Nostromo to Victory. UMI Research Press, 1985.

     Robert Secor and Debra Moddelmog, eds. Joseph Conrad and American Writers: A Bibliographical Study of Affinities, Influences, and Relations. Greenwood, 1985.

"This bibliographical study records a wealth of significant references connecting Conrad to American writers (and vice versa) and illuminating his influence on their work. It lists and fully annotates any book or essay that discusses the relationship between Conrad and American writers. Chapters deal with Conrad's relation to writers ranging from James Fenimore Cooper to Ernest Hemingway. The final section examines Conrad's influence on a number of modern American writers, in addition to his works portrayed by American filmmakers and his visit to America. The indexes list the authors in the bibliography, American writers and their works in relation to Conrad, and Conrad's own works. A concise chronology of Conrad's life and an introductory essay surveying the findings of the bibliography and assessing their significance appear at the beginning of the volume."

     Kenneth Simons. The Ludic Imagination: A Reading of Joseph Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1985.

    Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's An Outcast of the Islands. Garland Publishing, 1984.

     Arnold E. Davidson. Conrad's Endings: A Study of the Five Major Novels. UMI Research Press, 1984.

     David Leon Higdon and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Rover. Garland Publishing, 1984.

     Francis A. Hubbard. Theories of Action in Conrad. UMI Research Press, 1984.

"Conrad's style derives from his understanding of human action and how we talk about it. Our language for actions, intentions, the will, the emotions, ethics, and imagination seemed to Conrad a crafted language, like that of seamen for their craft, and he sought many of his most important effects through exploiting it. This book discusses style as the language of action in 'Typhoon,' Heart of Darkness, and The Secret Agent. Hubbard argues that in 'Typhoon,' Captain MacWhirr acquires an imagination by listening to the voice of the storm, a voice that has intentions and significance even though the Captain doesn't understand it. Before undergoing the storm, he cannot imagine that he could explain sailing around a storm to avoid it, since he wouldn't then know how bad it was. But afterward, he does display some imagination in solving the dispute among the people on board whose money has been thoroughly mixed together by the storm. In a more complex way, in Heart of Darkness, Marlow recognizes the fellow humanity of the cannibals he is traveling with, when he realizes that they are deliberately restraining themselves in a situation where they could have someone to eat. But Kurtz, who has no restraint, moves away from the connections with his fellows and moves off the scale of good and evil altogether, into what Marlow calls the dark. No human rules apply to Kurtz, but that is to be lost, not to be free. In The Secret Agent, the philosophy of bomb-throwing depends on a crucial misunderstanding of how speech acts work. If there isn't any recognition of an intention to communicate, that is, no 'uptake' of the act, the message the anarchist intends to send can not be received."

     Michael P. Jones. Conrad's Heroism: A Paradise Lost. UMI Research Press, 1984.

"Jones's methods rely on his critical readings of the stories he discusses and his arguments remain close to the texts. The four main chapters of this book follow the development of Conrad's heroic imagination from 1897 to 1909 by examining the dialectics of the heroic journey in four of his adventure tales. Framing these chapters are more general discussions of Conrad and other heroic writers of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. For those readers who are less interested in literary history, it is possible to read only the chapters on Conrad's stories and emerge with a way to read Conrad that is intended to make him more fun and more comprehensible. The first and last chapters reveal some of Jones's historical concerns and attempt to show how this reading of Conrad may contribute to our understanding of heroic literature and help us better to define Conrad's 'place' in literary modernism. Conrad's Heroism is intended for an academic audience but is also intended as a book accessible to those who not only enjoy reading Conrad but who are interested in looking for critical commentary that may help to heighten their appreciation of one of the foremost novelists in English literature."

     Stephen K. Land. Paradox and Polarity in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. St. Martin's Press, 1984.

"The book begins with the observation that certain situations and dispositions of character-types can be traced in most of Conrad's longer works and in many of his short stories. Central to this recurring pattern is the placement of the hero between conflicting opposites and the development around him of a paradoxical situation in which purposive action proves self-defeating. Examination of Conrad's works in order of composition reveals a development through several stages with respect to this pattern. The result is a clear exposition of Conrad's chief concerns as a novelist, of the main lines along which he matured as an architect of fiction, and of the crucial turning points in his creative career."

     Redmond O'Hanlon. Joseph Conrad and Charles Darwin: The Influence of Scientific Thought on Conrad's Fiction. Humanities Press, 1984.

"This study concentrates particularly on Lord Jim and follows Jim's involuntary journey down the long night of past evolutionary time as his internal regression draws him to the East, the home of Dubois' newly discovered Java Man and Haeckel's Pithecanthropus alalus. Conrad, fascinated by Darwin and by contemporary psychologists and anthropologists, traces Jim's descent into his own unconscious, and since the unconscious contains all of human biological history Jim's voyage becomes a series of broken falls from on evolutionary stratum to another. This book explores Conrad's fictional experiment with the biological problem of the roles of courage and honour, egoism and altruism, habit and instinct."

     James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Nostromo. Garland Publishing, 1984.

     Dwight H. Purdy. Joseph Conrad's Bible. University of Oklahoma Press, 1984.

"Purdy argues that probably through conscientious study, Joseph Conrad absorbed a culture and remade it in his own image. His art is an act of critical intelligence, a commentary upon all that is of the essence in English literary tradition. We study those essences when we study Conrad. This book considers one essence always acknowledged but seldom discussed, the rhetoric of biblical allusion. Revising the Authorized (King James) Version in his art, Conrad comments upon its vial role in English literature."

     Ernest W. Sullivan. The Several Endings of Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1984].

     Wit M. Tarnawski. Conrad the Man, the Writer, the Pole: An Essay in Psychological Biography. Trans. Rosamond Batchelor. Polish Cultural Foundation, 1984.

     Jan Verleun and Jetty de Vries, ed. Conrad's The Secret Agent and the Critics 1965-1980. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1984.

"In the book, the authors try to get a clear view of the basic tendencies in the criticism of The Secret Agent during the period 1965-1980.  They chose to begin with 1965 because the Conrad bibliography by Teets and Gerber virtually finished at 1965. The number of works included had to be limited, and the authors selected the Conrad critiques in book form written in English during their selected period of study.  They also chose books with clearly marked sections on The Secret Agent that would be of sufficient scholarly interest."

     Cedric Watts. The Deceptive Text: An Introduction to Covert Plots. Harvester Press, 1984.

     Todd K. Bender. Concordance to Conrad's The Mirror of the Sea and The Inheritors. Garland Publishing, 1983.

     David Leon Higdon and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Under Western Eyes. Garland Publishing, 1983.

     Allan Hunter. Joseph Conrad and the Ethics of Darwinism: The Challenges of Science. Croom Helm, 1983.

"This book shows Conrad as deeply concerned with human ethical motivation and its relation to the ideas of evolution current in his day. The book points to Conrad's detailed knowledge of the leading evolutionary arguments of the period--the disputes that haunted the Victorian world. Were ethics God-given or were morals merely an evolved attribute? Hunter argues that Conrad's novels are arguments with, and extensions of, the theories of Huxley, Darwin, Carlyle, Spencer, Lombroso and others on the nature of humanity. By taking the years of Conrad's artistic development, this study argues that he questioned in each of his works the leading evolutionists, and in so doing developed his own conception of what causes human beings to respond to the call of altruism."

     Frederick R. Karl and Laurence Davies, eds. The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad, 1861-1897, Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"The first of a projected eight-volume edition comprising all of the surviving letters of Joseph Conrad. Conrad's emergence out of Polish and French into a full mastery of the English language is a particular feature of this first volume. It covers a much longer period than any succeeding volume, running from 1861 until 1897. It opens with a child not yet four, his hand guided by his mother as he writes to his absent father, and it closes with an author, exile, and master mariner just turned forty; the years of transition from professional sailor to professional writer are particularly well represented. In this volume Conrad is seen as acquaintance, colleague, kinsman, and friend. The letters range in tone from the cynical to the extravagant, from the courtly to the irascible, from the playful to the profound. His early correspondence with the publishers T. Fisher Unwin and William Blackwood is here, side by side with letters to Edward and Constance Garnett, marguerite Poradowska, R. B. Cunninghame Graham, Stephen Crane, A. T. Quiller-Couch, Henry James, and H. G. Wells which reveal more intimate aspects of Conrad the author. Letters to many other, less celebrated people disclose the principles and prejudices, the fears and enthusiasms of an engagingly complex man. The volume contains an introduction by the editors, extensive annotation, and a number of illustrations and maps. Volume One opens with a child, not yet four, writing to comfort his imprisoned father and closes with an author, exile, and master mariner just turned forty."

     Benita Parry. Conrad and Imperialism: Ideological Boundaries and Visionary Frontiers. Macmillan Press, 1983.

     Zdzislaw Najder, ed. Conrad under Familial Eyes. Trans. Halina Carroll-Najder. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"In the last twenty years interest in Conrad's cultural roots has grown considerably, and with it the awareness of the importance of the Polish aspects of his biography. The present volume supplies English-speaking students and admirers of Conrad with a collection of texts which not only supplements the contents of Conrad's Polish Background, published in 1964 and of Joseph Conrad: A Chronicle (1983), but also considerably broadens and amplifies the picture of the great English writer's Polish connections. Very few of these texts so far have been available in English; several have never been published even in their original Polish. The texts included here fall, roughly speaking, into eight categories: (1) documents related to Conrad's parents; (2) documents related to his uncle and guardian, Tadeusz Bobrowski; (3) early documents of Jozef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski (Joseph Conrad); (4) letters to Konrad Korzeniowski; (5) Conrad's letters to Polish addressees, not included in Conrad's Polish Background; (6) reminiscences of Conrad, written by his Polish relatives and friends; (7) the interview Conrad gave to a Polish journalist in 1914; (8) two samples of the reaction to his work in his native country."

     Zdzislaw Najder. Joseph Conrad: A Chronicle. Trans. Halina Carroll-Najder. Cambridge University Press, 1983.

"A mass of critical material unavailable to previous biographers has been brought to light in recent years by Najder, and his biography presents a new view of Conrad's career, expounding the facts and problems on which any further biographical or critical theory will have to be based."

     R. Ramachandra. Melville & Conrad: A Comparative Study. Vasudha Prakashana, 1983.

"'Prophecy,' says E. M. Forster, 'is a tone of voice. It may imply any of the faiths that have haunted humanity. . . . Christianity, Buddhism, dualism, Satanism, or the mere raising of human love and hatred to such a power that their normal receptacles no longer contain them.' Melville, according to this vague--but impressive--definition, is a prophet, while Conrad, though a great artist, falls a little short of prophetic stature. Ramachandra argues that one may or may not agree with Forster's comment but that it provides a tangential take-off point which illumines at once the similarities and differences between these two masters of fiction. One has to take into account, in order to appreciate the complex nature of the spiritual affinity between Conrad and Melville, the former's vehement but unformulated rejection of the latter. Ramachandra attempts to show that their kinship is as much evident in their dissimilarities as in their similarities and that the likeness of the two writers consists mainly in their disowning certain commonly accepted values, and that the distinctive vision of each of these artists is mutually complementary: only, Conrad chose to keep in the background the very issues Melville brought to the fore. These considerations cause Ramachandra to devote more space to Conrad than to Melville. This work is at once an exercise in speculation, interpretation and literary criticism. Ramachandra found it necessary to make a study of character on a rather abstract level, through a discussion of heroes as types. Here Ramachandra uses Auden's classification of the three types--the 'aesthetic,' the 'ethical,' and the 'religious,' and related to these, Tillich's concepts of 'being,' 'non-being,' and 'being-itself.' At times Ramachandra elaborates on Auden's definitions and attempts to demonstrate that the ethical and religious consciousnesses that operate respectively in Conrad and Melville determine the nature of their symbolism and also offer us clues to their conceptions of evil as well as to their political dilemmas."

     Todd K. Bender. Concordances to Conrad's Tales of Unrest and Tales of Hearsay. Garland Publishing, 1982.

     Todd K. Bender and Kirsten A. Bender. Concordance to Conrad's Typhoon and Other Stories and Within the Tides. Garland Publishing, 1982.

     Jacques Darras. Joseph Conrad and the West: Signs of Empire. Trans. Anne Luyat and Jacques Darras. Macmillan Press, 1982.

"Darras argues that readers of Conrad should not look for signs of Polish cultural nationalism in his writing, or assume that, because he chose to write in English, Conrad became an Englishman.  Conrad's family's tragedy at the hands of the Tsarist regime gave a wide scope to his reflection on violence and aggressiveness throughout the 'civilised' world. Darras goes on to argue that Conrad wrote for, rather than about, the English and was obliged to conform to existing literary criteria even though the breviary of French novel-writing was not among them. This led to an artistic duplicity which was marked by a secret determination to carry his moderate opposition to the very heart of the language conforming the English literary criteria and yet all the while trying to make subtle changes in those criteria. Standing back from English traditions, Conrad was in a position to analyse the West and colonial expansion, which he did throughout his work. It is this aspect of his work with which Darras is particularly concerned."

     Adam Gillon. Joseph Conrad. Twayne Publishers, 1982.

"This study attempts to explain why Conrad has arrived and what makes him our contemporary. It is intended for the general public rather than for the specialist who has no trouble navigating the high seas of critical literature raging about us. Gillon tries to examine Conrad's entire output, proceeding in chronological manner but departing there from when thematic treatment was deemed necessary. In his introductions to each work, he emphasizes some of these themes, e.g., betrayal and fidelity, crime and punishment, existential choice, isolation, human solidarity, and the destructive dream. His assessment of Conrad's achievement as a novelist is related, whenever possible, to his cosmopolitanism, his Polish heritage, and his affinities with English, Polish, Russian, French, and German writers. Gillon stresses the psychological and intellectual dilemmas of the Conradian protagonist, while also delving into the technical aspects of Conrad's art, suggesting, among other things, its painterly qualities. The major thrust of Gillon's appraisal has been an attempt to reveal the nature of his contemporaneity and the reasons he is considered to be a great novelist."

     Notes from the Editors: Heart of Darkness and Other Tales by Joseph Conrad. Franklin Library, 1982.

     Torsten, Pettersson. Consciousness and Time: A Study in the Philosophy and Narrative Technique of Joseph Conrad. Abo Akademi, 1982.

     Daniel R. Schwarz. Conrad: The Later Fiction. Macmillan Press, 1982.

"In Conrad: The Later Fiction, Schwarz concludes his major study of Conrad's fiction which he began in Conrad: Almayer's Folly to Under Western Eyes, Schwarz argues that 'The Secret Sharer' and the neglected The Shadow-Line deserve to be ranked among Conrad's masterpieces and that, despite their shortcomings, Victory, Chance and The Rover are important works. His readings take issue with the views that Conrad's novels after Under Western Eyes should he read as allegorical romances or that the later works are fatally marred when they address the subject of heterosexual love. Schwarz argues for the continuity of Conrad's work. As in his prior study, Schwarz discusses the relationship between Conrad's life and work. Specifically, he looks at how the fiction expresses Conrad's psyche and values, Schwarz argues that Chance and Victory need to be understood in their historical contexts because in those novels Conrad wanted to prove that he was a British novelist and to write not only about manners and personal relationships, but to address some of the social and economic forces at work in England. Schwarz argues that Conrad continued to use his novels to define his identity and that the ageing Conrad recreated fictional versions of his past in The Shadow-Line and The Arrow of Gold. He explains why finishing The Rescue meant so much to Conrad. In his concluding chapter, Schwarz suggests that the protagonist of The Rover relates to Conrad himself and that the novel's aesthetic integrity depends in part on that relationship. Schwarz's readings are meant lead to a significant re-evaluation of the quality and meaning of Conrad's fiction after Under Western Eyes. Although it presents an overview of Conrad's career from 1910, Conrad: The Later Fiction also can be consulted by readers, teachers and students for discussions of individual works."

     David Simpson. Fetishism and Imagination: Dickens, Melville, Conrad. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982.

    Cedric Watts. A Preface to Conrad. Longman, 1982.

"Born in Poland in 1857, Conrad began publishing novels in English in 1895. He was to eventually become one of the greatest prose stylists in English literature. A master at creating character and atmosphere, Conrad is famous for his portrayals of individuals suffering from isolation and moral disintegration. This second edition has been completely revised to incorporate the very latest scholarly and critical research on Conrad's life and work. It provides the reader with a concise but thorough survey and is complete with a reference section and suggestions for further reading. The book provides new material on Conrad's heroes and heroines which takes account of current feminist debate. It contains contextual material, historical, political, biographical, philosophical and literary, with a broad range of critical analyses and insights and it also features commentaries on two major Conradian texts, 'Heart of Darkness' and Nostromo. It is aimed at undergraduates and the interested general reader.

     Henryk Zins, Joseph Conrad and Africa. Kenya Literature Bureau, 1982.

"This study is an attempt to answer the questions: what was Conrad's attitude towards Africa and colonialism and what were the historical, intellectual, and biographical factors which contributed to the image of Africa which we find in Heart of Darkness and 'An Outpost of Progress.'"

     Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's A Set of Six. Garland Publishing, 1981.

     John Conrad. Joseph Conrad: Times Remembered. Cambridge University Press, 1981.

"Though others have published reminiscences of Joseph Conrad, these accounts have frequently contained inaccuracies, sometimes even simple fabrications. It is partly in an attempt to set the record straight that John Conrad, the novelist's only surviving son, has committed these memoirs to print. John Conrad has not tried to import into the book the biographical interpretations or speculations of others, but rather to recall and set down as honestly and directly as possible what he remembers from around 1909 to the point of his father's death in 1924. Through his vivid and detailed account of the day-to-day existence in the various houses the family inhabited during this period, John Conrad is able both to throw light on many aspects of his father's life aid to invoke the sense of an era of English social life which has now disappeared. His memoirs are informal, often anecdotal, recording what amused, irritated or moved his father. He recounts a number of incidents which attest to his father's fondness for automobiles. He also offers vignettes of some of his father's friends and acquaintances such as Edward Garnett, J. B. Pinker, R. B. Cunninghame Graham, Ford Madox Hueffer, and Richard Curie. All those who read and study Conrad will find this an intriguing literary and human document: It offers a unique perspective: the everyday life of a great novelist seen through the eyes of a young boy."

     C. B. Cox, ed. Conrad: Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, Under Western Eyes, A Casebook. Macmillan Press, 1981.

"This book consists of several parts. The main section includes critical readings, a selection of reviews and comments by the Conrad's contemporaries, and an introduction that charts the reputation of these works from the first appearance to the present time. This volume includes selections from John Buchan, C. B. Cox, Richard Curle, H. M. Daleski, Avrom Fleishman, Douglas Hewitt, Ford Madox Hueffer (Ford), Edward Garnett, Albert J. Guerard, James Guetti, Bruce E. Johnson, John Masefield, Thomas Moser, Royal Roussel, K. K. Ruthven, Tony Tanner and Lionel Trilling."

    Paul L. Gaston and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Arrow of Gold. Garland Publishing, 1981.

     Eloise Knapp Hay. The Political Novels of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Study with a New Preface. University of Chicago Press, 1981.

     Fredric Jameson. The Political Unconscious: Narrative as Socially Symbolic Act. Cornell University Press, 1981.

     John A. McClure. Kipling & Conrad: The Colonial Fiction. Harvard University Press, 1981.

"In this book on the fiction of imperialism, McClure portrays the colonialist--his nature, aspirations, and frustrations--as perceived by Kipling and Conrad. And he relates these perceptions to the world and experiences of both writers. In the stories of the 1880s, McClure argues, Kipling focuses with bitter sympathy on 'the white man's burden' in India, the strains produced by early exile, ignorance of India, and the interference of liberal bureaucrats in the business of rule. Later works, including The Jungle Book and Kim, present proposals for imperial education intended to eliminate these strains. Conrad also explores the strains of colonial life, but from a perspective antithetical in many respects to Kipling's. In the Lingard novels and Lord Jim he challenges the imperial image of the colonialist as a wise, benign father protecting his savage dependents. The pessimistic assessment of the colonialist's motives and achievements developed in these works finds full expression, McClure suggests, in Heart of Darkness. And in Nostromo Conrad explores the human dimensions of large-scale capitalist intervention in the colonial world, finding once again no cause to celebrate imperialism."

      Notes from the Editors: Nostromo by Joseph Conrad. Franklin Library, 1981.

     James W. Parins and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus." Garland Publishing, 1981.

     Roger Tennant. Joseph Conrad. Atheneum, 1981.

"At a time when interest in Conrad has never been greater, Tennant has attempted to disentangle the facts of Conrad's life from his fiction to present a lucid and psychological portrait of one of the finest writers in the English language. The book is divided into three parts, the first dealing with Conrad's youth in Poland and his adventurous life as a seaman; the second, with his time of struggle and poverty in England, when he wrote his major works; and the third, with his final years of prosperity, including his triumphal visit to America. The vivid treatment of significant incidents in Conrad's life allows us clearly to picture and to draw our own conclusions about the complex author of Lord Jim, Nostromo, and Heart of Darkness, who so carefully concealed himself behind the books he wrote. Light is also cast upon the controversial issue of Conrad's collaboration with Ford Madox Ford, and upon the nature and causes of Conrad's alleged 'decline.' Throughout the book there is evidence of Tennant's deep affinity for Conrad."

     Todd K. Bender. Concordances to Conrad's The Shadow Line and Youth: A Narrative. Garland Publishing, 1980.

     William W. Bonney. Thorns & Arabesques: Contexts for Conrad's Fiction. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

"This book offers a series of new critical observations about the work of Joseph Conrad, based largely upon close readings of selected texts, many of which are rigorously analyzed for the first time. Bonney finds ontological, generic, and technical traditions and contexts that have influenced Conrad's art and that have yet to be understood in detail. The book proceeds from the most general topic (a discussion of Conrad's ontology) to the most specific (a discussion of the point-of-view devices and sentence structures that Conrad typically employs and that seem to be direct technical consequences of his world-view). The first chapter, on Conrad's ontology, builds to a lengthy discussion of a single work, Typhoon, and applies abstractions that were previously established by means of explication of isolated passages through a sustained exercise in practical criticism.  The same approach is used in the final chapter, which deals with Conrad's aesthetic techniques as they can be discovered in the semantic problems in individual sentences and phrases. In the central part of the book, Bonney defines some of the most important characteristics of the romance genre as Conrad inherited it in the late 19th century. The author proceeds to analyze at length Conrad's innovative and subversive use of situations and characters that are derived from traditional romance narratives. Conrad's pointed rejection of the redemptive coherences of 'teleological romance' is accomplished by means of a repeated innovation and inversion of tradition, a fact Bonney says has been largely ignored by those who have explored Conrad's fiction in other contexts."

     R. J. Das. Joseph Conrad: A Study in Existential Vision. Associated Publishing House, 1980.

"Literary criticism on Joseph Conrad is generally concerned with his 'romantic realism or his fictional technique. His vision of life, though of paramount importance for an understanding of his personality and works, has not received the attention it deserves. The present study attempts to analyse Conrad’s vision from the existentialist viewpoint. Conrad had a keen prophetic insight and he could anticipate the existential dilemma of man well in advance of the two World Wars. Of particular interest is the author’s analysis of the vision which anticipates Satre's political existentialism. With the treatment of humanity's miserable plight in a hostile universe, his self-assertions for identity in life, his sense of disillusionment, despair and alienation, his nightmarish experiences of anxiety and absurdity, Joseph Conrad is possibly a link in the long chain of existential writers, his stance being between Nietzsche and Camus."

     Gary Geddes. Conrad's Later Novels. McGill-Queen's University Press, 1980.

"This book constitutes a detailed study of the later novels of Conrad. Geddes here offers a challenge to the commonly accepted thesis that Conrad's writing suffered a decline after Under Western Eyes was completed. Geddes argues to the contrary that Conrad remained eloquently in control of his medium, working variations on the romance pattern (particularly the rescue of the individual in distress) and creating a form which might be called the ironic romance. Using the ironic romance as a basic structure for the analysis of social, psychological, and philosophical issues that particularly concerned him, Conrad moved into a new phase of artistic consolidation and experiment. His later novels are more highly stylized and more self-consciously shaped than the earlier work; they also explore many of the structural metaphors, such as sculpture and painting, that are anticipated in his early preface to The Nigger of the 'Narcissus.' Geddes argues that critics have tended to misunderstand the later novels because they have neglected those techniques that deepen, modify, and render complexly ironic the surfaces of conventional romance which Conrad was working against."

     Lech Paszkowski. Social Background of Sir Paul Strzelecki and Joseph Conrad. Australia Felix Literary Club, 1980.

"This pamphlet is largely about Paul Strzelecki (1797-1863), a 19th-century Polish-born explorer and scientist, who left Poland for England and traveled to  Australia in 1839, remaining there until 1843, during which time he traveled extensively and was credited with making various discoveries.  Paszkowski is less concerned, though, with retracing Strzelecki's journeys and discoveries than with demonstrating Strzelecki's membership in the the Polish gentry and how that social class differed from the upper classes of Western Europe. Paszkowski also makes a case for Conrad's membership in the Polish gentry as well, gleaning much of his material from Jerry Allen's The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad."

     Daniel R. Schwarz. Conrad: Almayer's Folly to Under Western Eyes. Cornell University Press, 1980.

"In this book, rather than focusing on a single theme throughout the fiction, Schwarz considers each of Conrad's works as a unique imagined world with its own aesthetic and moral geography, and explores the work's contribution to an understanding of the whole. This volume surveys in chronological order all of Conrad's novels, novellas, and shorts stories written between 1896 and 1909. Schwarz discusses Conrad's use of the personal and omniscient narrator through a close analysis of the relation between theme and point of view within his works. Contrary some critics' view of Conrad as a nihilist and a pessimist, Schwarz sees him as essentially a humanist, deeply concerned with the search for meaning in an amoral world."

     Werner Senn. Conrad's Narrative Voice: Stylistic Aspects of His Fiction. Francke Verlag, 1980.

     Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Garland Publishing, 1979.

     Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's The Secret Agent. Garland Publishing, 1979.

     Paul Bruss. Conrad's Early Sea Fiction: The Novelist as Navigator. Bucknell University Press, 1979.

"Conrad first introduces his perspective of navigational traditions in his characterization of Allistoun and Singleton in The Nigger of the 'Narcissus.' By virtue of their unparalleled performances during the ship's disabling, Allistoun and Singleton not only serve as contrasts to the other sailors of the Narcissus, but they also become the basis for Conrad's broadening of his conception of navigational metaphor with the three early Marlows: the twenty-year-old on the Judea, who absorbs the great history behind the sailing tradition; the Marlow who, a few years older, journeys into the heart of the Congo and there discovers the bewildering dimensions of 'navigating' the darkness of all experience; and the mature Marlow who befriends Lord Jim and who, by so doing, becomes aware of the 'navigational' nature of all human relationships. After Lord Jim Conrad's use of navigational metaphor takes a sharp turn as he shifts his focus from the world of sails to the world of steam. In 'Typhoon' the ship is the steamer Nan-Shan, and there the captain, MacWhirr, is reduced to only the dull counterpart of his forbear, Allistoun. In 'Falk' the ship may again be a sailing vessel, but this time the young and bright captain is at the mercy of a tugboat skipper I whose motives are incomprehensible. In I both tales, consequently, there remains little of Marlow's almost boundless sense of self-realization. With 'The End of the Tether' and Captain Whalley, I the heroic navigator who in retirement shifts from the Fair Maid (sails) to the Sofala (steam), the decline of the metaphor becomes fully apparent. By joining the Sofala, Whalley violates the loyalties to sails by which he has organized his whole life and even becomes the employee of an engineer who owns the steamer. Conrad's two greatest works in the period, Heart of Darkness and Lord Jim, probably foreshadow the decline that becomes evident in 'Typhoon' and beyond. For both Marlow in the Congo and Lord Jim in Patusan serve as representatives of man entering a wilderness that is largely divorced from the great tradition of sails. Marlow may recover himself, but Jim does not."

     Jeremy Hawthorn. Joseph Conrad: Language and Fictional Self-Consciousness. Edward Arnold, 1979.

"This book is organized around a detailed discussion of five of Conrad's major novels and seeks to demonstrate that a self-conscious concern with language and fiction is present as a crucial element within these works. As well as citing internal evidence from the novels to substantiate this claim, Hawthorn refers to Conrad's letters and essays and to critical and biographical studies. Hawthorn makes use of the theories of such writers as L. S. Vygotsky to argue that an important and unique feature of human language is its ability to detach itself from immediate, concrete situations. He suggests that writing and fiction develop this essential characteristic (along with its potentialities and vulnerabilities) to a grater and greater extent. Conrad's suspicion of language, and of the truth and morality of fiction itself, is explained in terms of the increasingly 'displaced' nature of such activities and their contrast with far more immediate and reliable uses of language."

     F. A. Inamdar. Image and Symbol in Joseph Conrad's Novels. Panchsheel Prakashan, 1979.

"This book explores Conrad's symbolic art as revealed in the entire corpus of his fiction and charts the evolution of image and symbol patterns which the novelist uses as central modes of articulation of his vision. Its object is to establish their cumulative meaning and to identify phases of intensification and relaxation of the novelist's art. Inamdar argues that the image and symbol patterns in Conrad's novels are characterised by continuity and interrelatedness. Inamdar attempts to show how these patterns succeed in evoking the novelist's vision of life and how the interative  symbols and images function as a creative and modifying impulse, acting on the reader's imagination with great cumulative force. Thus, this study seeks to fill a lacuna in Conrad criticism, besides offering value judgments meant to modify traditional critical assessment of individual works."

     Roza Jablkowska, ed. Joseph Conrad Conference in Poland 5-12 September 1972 Contributions: Second Series. Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Adademii Nauk, 1979.

"This is the Second Series of papers and contributions to the Second International Conrad Conference (September 1972). Perhaps Conrad's idea of chance was instrumental in the choice of one integrating point of view and represented by many papers. Namely, the exemplificatory material and evidence in argumentation was largely drawn from Lord Jim. It was then quite fitting to examine the ideas, patterns of moral conduct as set forth by Polish positivists of the 19th century, and look in the novel for Conrad's Polish heritage. Numerous Conrad scholars paid then their first visit to Poland, and the story of Lord Jim seemed to be a meaningful link between Conrad's Polish childhood and present-day Poland. Jim's complex of unreadiness at the moment of crisis, his pursuit of self-knowledge, his attempt at the discovery of these very few and simple ideas upon which man's universe and man-to-man relations should rest--seem to be of Polish origin, to be later strengthened and enriched during the writer's life on the high seas and in the solitary seclusion of his writing years. By another stroke of chance several papers in this Series center around 'Heart of Darkness' and show the writer as philosopher, sociologist and great artist. This time Conrad's remarkable creation of Kurtz in the darkness of his triumphs and final defeat, and also Conrad's supreme art of telling a story about an ordinary man projected against the deep circles of often inexplicable and horrifying motivation cast amid a vastly conceived vision of all human existence--these matters are examined from several angles. Other papers tell about interesting facts from the writer's life or show the features of Polish sensibilities in his art. Essays include Aniela Kowalska, '"Heart of Darkness": Kurtz's "Saison en Enfer"'; Witold Chwalewik, 'A Note on the Play of Poetical Allusion in "Heart of Darkness"'; Cedric T. Watts, 'How Many Kurtzes Are in "Heart of Darkness"?'; Mario Curelli, 'The Writing of Nostromo'; Cedric T. Watts, 'Conrad's Nostromo: Politics and the Time-Shifts'; Hans Van Marle, 'Young Ulysses Ashore: On the Trail of Konrad Korzeniowski in Marseilles'; Susanne Henig, 'Virginia Woolf and Joseph Conrad'; James A. Anderson, 'Conrad in America'; Leszek Prorok, 'A Watch with Conrad'; Witold Ostrowski, 'The Secret Agent as a Crime Novel'; Antoni Golubiew, 'The Trilogy about Tom Lingard'; Stefan Zabierowski, 'Conrad under Polish Eyes during World War II.'"

     Frederick R. Karl. Joseph Conrad: The Three Lives, A Biography. Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979.

"Karl's biography considers how and why this son of Polish nationalist revolutionaries turned English seaman became one of the leading novelists in our language. These 'three lives'--as Pole, as sailor, and then as writer--were intertwined. Even as a youngster in Poland, Conrad was a writer in the making. During the years at sea, Conrad was observing with the eyes of the future novelist. And so, when he turned seriously to writing, in a language learned late and with his life more than half over, he was armed, prepared. Drawing on thousands of letters and other documentation, Karl integrates Conrad with the Polish, French, and British historical backgrounds; with the social and political contexts; and with cultural and literary influences, including Polish poetry and prose, French Symbolist writing, the English classics, and his Edwardian and Georgian colleagues and friends. Karl also brings psychological analysis and literary analysis to this biography."

     Camille R. La Bossiere. Joseph Conrad and the Science of Unknowing. York Press, 1979.

"In this study, La Bossiere examines the principle of the coincidentia oppositorum as it underlies Conrad's fiction. La Bossiere argues that an understanding of Conrad's dream logic, defined in its negative relationship to Aristotelian philosophy, and considered in a tradition traced from Cusa and Caldron to a number of 19th- and 20th-century writers, including Slowacki, Amiel, and Claudel, assists the reader in perceiving the subsurface unity of Conrad's thought and art without sacrificing the integrity of the separate tales."

     James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Victory. Garland Publishing, 1979.

     J. A. Verleun. Patna and Patusan Perspectives: A Study of the Function of the Minor Characters in Joseph Conrad's Lord Jim. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1979.

"In this study of Conrad's minor characters in Lord Jim, Verleun attempts to help fellow critics assess the greatness of Conrad the writer. There will be few great writers whose excellence can be proved so easily by pointing to the sublimity of their minor conceptions, few great writers too who are in so much need of a proper study of the functions of the small fry that people their novels, With Jim, as with Nostromo, Decoud, Gould and Monygham, Verleun argues, it proved indispensable to a proper understanding of the protagonist (or antagonist, as the case may be) to weigh the nature of his relationships with the lesser figures surrounding him. The contrasts and parallels drawn have been 'anxiously meditated.'"

     Ian Watt. Conrad in the Nineteenth Century. University of California Press, 1979.

"This study provides a full account of Conrad's early literary career. Though not a critical biography, the opening chapter and the biographical sections that preface each subsequent chapter attempt to recapitulate the new picture of Conrad's life that has begun to emerge during the last twenty years. The main emphases, however, are historical and critical. Conrad was not anomalously immune to the historical process; his work is rich and diverse both in its inheritance from the past and in its reactions to the life of its own time. In taking up such matters as Conrad's relationship to the Romantic movement, to the popular and highbrow traditions in the novel, to the Impressionist and Symbolist traditions, Watt shows how Conrad's works stand in relation both to the multifarious literary currents of the late nineteenth century and to what we still call the 'modern' movement in literature. Conrad's social ethic was largely that of the nineteenth century, but his basic intellectual assumptions were very similar to those of the most original and influential thinkers of the last decades of the nineteenth century: and this conflict does much to explain the nature of Conrad's literary achievement. The third emphasis of Conrad in the Nineteenth Century is exegetic. The complete diversity--or disarray--of contemporary opinion about what literature and its criticism is or should be has meant that we are further than ever from anything like a consensus in our view of Conrad's fiction. Watt attempts to promote some measure of agreement through an interpretative commentary that restricts itself to meanings which the literal imagination can discover in a detailed reading of Conrad's text. This first volume deals with Conrad's career up to 1900, and concentrates on four works: Almayer's Folly, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness, and Lord Jim."

     J. Zaal. The Kernel and the Halo: Conrad’s Technique in Two Early Tales. University of Zululand Publications, [1979?].

     Jacques Berthoud. Joseph Conrad: The Major Phase. Cambridge University Press, 1978.

"Although the importance of Conrad's work has long been recognized, its intellectual coherence has been called into question. In this study, Berthoud attempts a full demonstration of the clarity, consistency, and depth of thought evident in the novels written during the first decade of the 20th century. Instead of the standard versions of Conrad--from sceptical moralizer to 'metaphysician of darkness'--he offers a tragic novelist, engaged in a sustained exploration of the contradictions inherent in human relations; and from that perspective, he attempts to show why Conrad occupies a leading place among the creators of modern literature. This book is intented to be of interest to specialists in English studies because it seeks to make a substantial new contribution to the critical debate on the significance of Conrad's work. It it also intended to appeal to any reader looking for guidance through the complexities of the major novels: the central issues have been presented as simply as the originality of Conrad's art and thought permits."

     Sue M. Briggum and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Almayer's Folly. Garland Publishing, 1978.

     R. A. Gekoski. Conrad: The Moral World of the Novelist. Barnes & Noble, 1978.

"Early critics stressed Conrad's belief in the 'few simple notions' of service and social responsibility which provide, on an analogy with the merchant service, the foundation values of the human community. Recent studies, on the other hand, have focused on Conrad's commitment to a metaphysic that asserted the meaninglessness of life and the impossibility of moral action. The two positions seem sufficiently in conflict for us to understand why Conrad is frequently called 'obscure.' In this appraisal of the major novels, Gekoski tries to show, however, that there is no need to choose between the two views, which stand not in outright contradiction but in creative tension with each other: a tension that provides both temperamental source and subject of Conrad's greatest fiction. Gekoski traces the relationship between Conrad's metaphysics and his ethical beliefs, to reveal the heart of his concerns as a writer--the mixture of scepticism and belief that is so profoundly a product of our time. In this re-reading of one of the greatest of English writers, Gekoski attempts to amend some long established valuations of individual works."

     Ranjit K. Kapur. Joseph Conrad: His Theme and Treatment of Evil. Bahri Publications, 1978.

"Kapur argues that Conrad's vision of evil partakes of existential and metaphysical concerns.  This study is an attempt to trace the patterns of evil in relation to Conrad's strategies, techniques and rhetoric. Kapur argues that Conrad's pre-occupation with the theme of evil brings into play all those anxieties, ambiguities and imponderables which assail the twentieth-century mind. To that extent, Conrad becomes a mirror of the modern imagination and ceases to be a sui generis case.  Kapur ventures to deal with the various nuances of evil as the colour and shape the 'psycho-moral-dream' of the Conrad universe."

     Sanford Pinsker. The Languages of Joseph Conrad. Rodopi, 1978.

     J. A. Verleun. The Stone Horse: A Study of the Function of the Minor Characters in Joseph Conrad's Nostromo. Bouma's Boekhuis, 1978.

"The aim of this book is to show that the major characters of Nostromo cannot be fully understood without detailed analysis of the minor characters.  This book is also an attempt to vindicate detailed approaches as do not lose sight of broad outline and deeper artistic and moral purpose but which yet reflect an awareness of even the minor constituents of Conrad's artistic constructs."

     Cedric Watts. Conrad and Cunninghame Graham. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), 1978.

     Jeffrey Berman. Joseph Conrad: Writing as Rescue. Astra Books, 1977.

"Berman charts a new course in Conradian investigation with an interdisciplinary approach, combining literary criticism with psychobiography. Though Berman is aware of the pitfalls inherent in the Freudian concept of sublimation, especially when it is applied to the artist's life and to his work, he attempts to show how Lord Jim is a genuine and a prophetic exploration of the subject of sublimation. Stein's enigmatic advice to Marlow 'to the destructive element submit yourself' assumes additional mystery when we consider Conrad's lifelong preoccupation, both in his life and art, with the embattled subject of self-destruction. For not only does Conrad's fictive world reveal a higher suicide rate than that of any other major novelist, but the mortality rate jumps if we include the ambiguous suicides, such as Jim, Razumov (in Under Western Eyes) and Stevie and the Professor (in The Secret Agent). This study attempts to show that much of the psychological and moral complexity of Conrad's art derives from the novelist's imaginative exploration of suicide; and that Conrad. who actually shot himself in the chest when he was twenty years old, is one of the first in the tradition of 'extremist' artists, whose perception of the abyss literally undermines their physical and psychic health. Concealing the secret suicide attempt from virtually everyone, Conrad nevertheless mythologized the wound in a purportedly autobiographical novel called The Arrow of Gold. He also repeatedly confronted the question of suicide in his other writings, though carefully disguising the 'figure behind the veil,' yet paradoxically, nothing more fully liberated Conrad's creative powers than the 'destructive element'; and he regarded the novelist as an 'escape artist' in the most profound sense."

     C. B. Cox. Conrad. Longman Group for The British Council, 1977.

"Joseph Conrad, who first became known to the public as 'a prose laureate of the Merchant Service,' was an altogether more complex figure both in his personality and his art than his early reputation indicated. In this pamphlet, Cox draws attention at the outset to the inner conflicts of Conrad's disposition. which were intensified by the loneliness caused by the early death of his parents and by his life-long separation from his native Poland. After surveying Conrad's early tales of the sea and of Far Eastern life, he discusses as length the major novels, Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and Under Western Eyes. Conrad's special pre-eminence among modern novelists lies in his capacity to perceive the absurdity, the absence of meaning in the universe, and yet so hold on to moral ideals of service and duty. His 'bi-focal vision' held in balance contradictory modes of experience. Conrad's fiction embraces both problems of action and still more searching problems of conduct. In handling these he displays a rare imaginative courage, since without flinching from his nihilistic vision, he opposes to it those qualities of steadfastness and human solidarity which he especially valued in the sea-faring profession."

     H. M. Daleski. Joseph Conrad: The Way of Dispossession. Faber and Faber, 1977.

"Proceeding from Conrad's belief in a full possession of self as a prime value in life, Daleski presents a new approach to his fiction, showing how the question of self-possession became the central theme of Conrad's best work. His study traces Conrad's own deepening understanding of the theme that claimed him, following a development which led the novelist from an initial interest in physical panic to an exploration of the related phenomena of spiritual nullity and suicide. In his analysis of the most significant body of Conrad's writing, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' 'Heart of Darkness,' Lord Jim, 'Typhoon,' Nostromo, The Secret Agent, 'The Secret Sharer,' and Under Western Eyes, Daleski argues for the unifying force of Conrad's deepest concern, and attempts to show how his art moves to a paradoxical and complex triumph in his realization that true self-possession is based on a capacity for abandon."

     D. C. R. A. Goonetilleke. Developing Countries in British Fiction. Rowman and Littlefield, 1977.

"Goonetilleke studies extensively the British reactions to developing countries in the context of the historical, political and personal circumstances from which these reactions emerged. Goonetilleke concentrates on the best of the fiction which embodies the major British reactions to developing countries which at the same time reflect their respective periods in important ways. Thus he discusses mainly the reactions of Conrad to the Far East, Africa and South America; of Kipling and Forster to India; of Lawrence to Mexico and New Mexico; and of Cary to Nigeria. Goonetilleke asks, 'How well do these writers portray Westerners in alien countries and alien people in alien countries; how do the level and pace of development of each country shape the kind of fiction written about it; what position does the outlook of each writer occupy I the context of his period; what artistic problems do these writers face in common because they present these countries?' Imperialism, race relations and primitivism are among the issues raised by the chosen literature."

      Richard Gravil. Joseph Conrad: Nostromo. The British Council, 1977.

     Elsa Nettels. James & Conrad. University of Georgia Press, 1977.

"This book offers the first extended comparison of James and Conrad. Nettels begins her study with a brief history of the relationship between the two writers, discussing their various meetings, their impressions of each other, their criticism of each other's work, and their correspondence. There follows an analysis of their principles and methods, which concentrates on their definitions of representation, self-expression, and truth in fiction, their ideas of their creative process, and their conceptions of the novelist in relation to both his characters and his readers. Nettles also compares James's and Conrad's narrative methods, noting particularly the characteristic structure and patterns of action in their fiction, their use of imagery, their treatment of time, and their creation of a central consciousness or a narrator as the register of action. At every point, Nettels sees a close relationship between their narrative methods and the themes and moral issues with which they are concerned."

     Edouard Roditi. Meetings with Conrad. Press of the Pegacycle Lady, 1977.

     Cedric Watts. Conrad's Heart of Darkness: A Critical and Contextual Discussion. Mursia International, 1977.

"Watts's book attempts to offer the fullest available discussion of Conrad's most brilliant and problematic work.  Watts tries to examine every significant aspect of  Heart of Darkness, from the plot and characterization to imagery, and symbolism, and  pays particular attention to ambiguity and paradoxes in the work. By relating the text to a variety of literary, biographical, historical, and philosophical context, Watts explores Conrad's central preoccupations as a writer and as a commentator on his age. The critical analyses attempt to offer solutions to contentious problems which recur in various works by Conrad and other modern writers."

     C. F. Burgess. The Fellowship of the Craft: Conrad on Ships and Seamen and the Sea. Kennikat Press, 1976.

"Teodor Korzeniowski, better known as Joseph Conrad, went to sea at eighteen and spent twenty years before the mast, ultimately achieving command of a British merchant ship. Much of his writing, of course, deals with the sea, and every critical study of Conrad's work makes at least passing reference to his relation to the sea. Some studies have chronicled his sailing career--his voyages, his ships, and the men he sailed with. No study before this, however, has examined Conrad's writings to determine precisely the writer's thoughts and feelings about the sea, ships, sailors, and the invisible ties that bind all worthy seamen in what Conrad called 'the fellowship of the craft.' In this book, Burgess undertakes such an examination. Using the explicit testimony of Conrad's two biographical memoirs (The Mirror of the Sea and A Personal Record) and the wealth of implicit evidence contained in the sea tales, Burgess tests the traditional generalizations about Conrad's attitudes and finds them at best oversimplified, at worst--wrong. Above all, Burgess stresses, Conrad did not feel unqualified 'love' for the sea. 'Odi et amo,' Conrad said, and, as Burgess shows, he often depicted the sea as malevolent and violent. Towards ships, says Burgess, Conrad is more positive. 'No ship is wholly bad,' the ex-seaman wrote; in fact, as Burgess demonstrates, Conrad considered ships more faithful than many men who sailed them. The theme of fidelity is, according to Burgess, central to Conrad's sea stories. Fidelity is the prime requisite for membership in the 'fellowship,' and the sea stories focus on men who either keep or break that faith. In the course of his examination, Burgess looks at eleven books and stories, including, Lord Jim, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Almayer's Folly, Typhoon, The Shadow-Line, 'The Secret Sharer,' 'Youth,' and Heart of Darkness."

     John Conrad. Some Reminiscences of My Father. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1976].

     Edward Crankshaw. Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel. 2nd ed. Macmillan Press, 1976.

"A reprint of Crankshaw's 1936 edition of Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel with a new preface."

     John Crompton, ed. Wit Tarnawski: The Man, the Writer, the Pole. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1976].

"This is a short pamphlet intended both as a tribute to Wit Tarnawski and as an introduction to his work.  It contains a brief introduction by John Crompton, a brief biography of Tarnawski, a bibliography of Tarnawski's work, and four short essays: 'Where Hewitt Was Wrong,' a brief rebuttal of Hewitt's arguments in his Conrad: A Reassessment; 'Pan Jim: Lord Jim and the Polish National Character,' a brief discussion of the character of Jim in terms of Polish national character; 'Nostromo and Flaubert's Salammbo,' a brief discussion of the relationship between these two works; and 'The Mirror of Conrad,' a brief discussion on Conrad's character."

     Adam Gillon. Conrad and Shakespeare and Other Essays. Astra Books, 1976.

"These essays, representing a decade and a half of research and are a personal homage to Conrad on the fiftieth anniversary of his death. Mostly comparative in nature, they offer textual analogies between Conrad on the one hand and, on the other, Shakespeare, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, Sartre, Kafka, Camus, Mickiewica, Slowacki, Zeromski, and others. Gillon attempts to shed new light on some relatively unexplored themes, e.g., 'Conrad's Archetypal Jew,' and provides an updated assessment of the novelists reception in Poland. The essays focus on the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Conrad's work and depict his vision of humanity as being inspired by the universal values of fidelity, courage, and perseverance in the face of adversity. Essays include 'Joseph Conrad: Polish Cosmopolitan'; 'Conrad and Shakespeare (One to Five)'; 'The Absurd and "Les Valeurs Ideales" in Conrad, Kafka and Camus'; 'Conrad and Sartre'; 'The Merchant of Esmeralda--Conrad's Archetypal Jew'; 'Russian Literary Elements in Joseph Conrad'; 'Shakespearean and Polish Tonalities in Conrad's "The Lagoon"'; 'Conrad and Poland.'"

     Peter J. Glassman. Language and Being: Joseph Conrad and the Literature of Personality. Columbia University Press, 1976.

"Glassman suggests that the extraordinarily difficult circumstances of Conrad's early life produced a pronouncedly vulnerable character structure which continually required to be sustained and sanctioned by the construction of an imaginative relation to its own past and to the outside world. Conrad's boyhood proposed itself as a protracted and largely unrelieved experience of isolation and distress. The dismal conditions of his early existence promoted in the young Conrad, among other symptoms of dysfunction, a weakened self-image and a habitual disposition toward self-detestation which, Glassman argues, Conrad could resist only by submitting his character to the protective apparatus provided by fictional discourse. Glassman further argues that in this regard Conrad's early novels ought to be read as the first expression of Conrad's remarkable effort to produce an externalized and durable identity structure. By establishing a direct link between Conrad's experience of history and the content of his art, Glassman develops a view of Conrad which for the first time places his character and his literature within the contemporary critical perspectives extended by phenomenological and post-Freudian personalist methodology."

     Gustav Morf. Polish Shades and Ghosts of Joseph Conrad. Astra Books, 1976.

"In his volume of reminiscences, A Personal Record, Conrad for the first time spoke to his public of his Polish background. He did so with great apprehension. In his Author's Note to A Personal Record, he tried to exorcise, as it were, the ghosts of his Polish past when he concluded, 'these Shades may be allowed to return to their place of rest . . . awaiting the moment when their haunting reality . . . shall pass for ever with me out of the world.' We know that writing his reminiscences was not the only occasion when he sought 'discourse with the shades' or when, unbidden, they came to haunt him. Shades and ghosts assailed him quite often, as they assailed of many of his heroes. This book deals with Conrad's shades and ghosts. Most of them had to do with Poland. When someone for over twenty years represses the voices of his past and his national and family heritage as resolutely as Conrad did, for the sake of a completely new existence under a different clime, that past by necessity escapes his will power, becomes darker, more remote, more threatening. Like the spirits of the dead it may become a haunting presence and an obsessive influence--a process well described in Conrad's tale 'Karain.' It is this aspect of Conrad which forms the subject of the present study. As he once said himself, he was a 'duplex' man, a man of two natures. The more hidden side of him was Polish, and it was his darker side because for so long he had kept it in the dark deliberately. Yet it was this side that gave a dimension of depth and a haunting quality to his work. Morf explores Conrad as a 'duplex' man. A practicing psychiatrist, Morf examines the novelist's Polish background wherein he finds clues to the haunting quality of Conrad's work. This analytical biography of Conrad and the scrutiny of his texts attempt to reveal how the long repression of voices from the past affected Conrad's fiction. The more hidden side of Conrad was Polish, and it was his darker side because he had kept it in the dark deliberately and for a long time. Yet it was this aspect of his personality which is responsible for the special appear of Conrad's art. This book contains numerous photographs, some of them never published before."

     James W. Parins, Robert J. Dilligan, Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Conrad's Lord Jim: Verbal Index, Word Frequency Table, and Field of Reference. Garland Publishing, 1976.

     Norman Sherry, ed. Joseph Conrad: A Commemoration, Papers from the 1974 International Conference on Conrad. Macmillan Press, 1976.

"Joseph Conrad was born in Russian-occupied Poland in 1857; he died in England in 1924. Poland's loss was Britain's gain. Conrad chose England as his country and English as his medium, and England acquired one of her greatest novelists, one whose experience was international and ranged from the society of the Polish aristocracy to that of seamen before the mast. This collection of original essays arises from papers read at the international conference held at Canterbury--the city in which Conrad is buried--to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of his death; the book shows both his international reputation and the wide scope of interest in his work. Bringing together the work of numerous scholars in the field, the book illustrates not only the traditional attitudes but points the way to new and future areas of Conrad studies. The collection is truly international and representative of the range of Conrad's genius as well as attempting to provide fresh insight into his life and work."

     Boleslaw Sulik. A Change of Tack: Making The Shadow Line. British Film Institute, 1976.

This is the story of a co-production between a British commercial television company, Thames, and the State-run film industry of Poland. Together they produced The Shadow Line, drawn from the semi-autobiographical work by Joseph Conrad and directed by the eminent Polish film-maker, Andrzej Wajda. This book recounts the difficult negotiations involved in setting up the project, the many changes in the script and the complexities of shooting with both English and Polish actors on locations in Warsaw, Bangkok, Bulgaria and Liverpool. Sulik is himself, as Conrad was, a Polish writer living in England. Besides writing the script for the film he was closely involved in liaison both in planning the project and on the set. He is thus well-placed to chart the cultural tensions which were added to the more usual problems of the film-making process.

     Martin Tucker. Joseph Conrad. Frederick Ungar, 1976.

"Conrad's major literary work is a reflection of both his esthetic and his moral attitudes. Caught between an urge to plunge deeply into experience and the artist's need to objectify and shape human events, he struggled toward the technique for which he became famous--the use of several narrators, each with a new focus; symbols and images repeated as a motif; psychological tension and awareness of change end coincidence. All this in a language into which he was not born. This adroit new study examines Conrad's most significant works in detail--Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, Under Western Eyes, and Victory--and as part of a pattern Conrad wove in a never ending quest for unity of spirit. Conrad's sea stories and his two superb novellas--The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' and Heart of Darkness--are given full critical analysis. Tucker reviews the findings of past critics of Conrad and fuses them into fresh interpretations, suggesting new avenues of approach to the work of one of the giants of modern literature."

     Serajul Islam Choudhury. The Moral Imagination of Joseph Conrad. University of Dacca, 1975.

"Conrad's concern in his novels has been predominantly with ethical ideas. This book makes an attempt to see how the novelist expresses his views on moral conduct through his construction of plots, choice and presentation of characters, and use of language. Conrad's concern in his novels has been predominantly with ethical ideas. This book makes an investigation into the novelist's formulation and presentation of certain key concepts of good and evil through his intricate construction of plots, the choice and treatment of characters as moral agents, and the use of words as images in his characteristically rhetorical style.  His non-fictional writings have also been examined. Conrad's points of meeting with the departure from Dostoevsky, whom he disliked, and Schopenhauer, in whom he was interested, have been investigated, together with his difference from two of his contemporaries, E. M. Forster and D. H. Lawrence.

     Adam Gillon and Ludwik Krzyzanowski, eds. Joseph Conrad: Commemorative Essays, Selected Proceedings of the International Conference of Conrad Scholars, University of California, San Diego, August 29-September 5, 1974. Astra Books, 1975.

"The selections in this volume are from papers read at the International Conference of Conrad Scholars, held at the Revelle Campus of the University of California as San Diego (August 29 - September 5, 1974), and organized by Suzanne Henig of San Diego State University. The aim of the Conference was to offer yet another tribute to Conrad on the fiftieth anniversary of his death."

     Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. 3rd ed. Bowes & Bowes, 1975.

"Includes a new conclusion in which Hewitt reflects upon the progress of the debate on Conrad's work during a period in which belief in his greatness as a symbolic novelist has become orthodox. He discusses some of the tendencies in Conrad studies and, by implication, in the criticism of modern fiction generally. In these new sections, and especially in the Conclusion, Hewitt writes particularly about Conrad's political vision which finds its fullest expression in his masterpiece, Nostromo."

     Roza Jablkowska, ed. Joseph Conrad Colloquy in Poland 5-12 September 1972. Zaklad Narodowy Imienia Ossolinskich, Wydawnictwo Polskiej Akademii Nauk, 1975.

"This is a collection of essays from the 1972 Joseph Conrad Colloquy in Poland. These sessions centred on the major problems of interest, namely Conrad's Polish heritage and his art of impressionism.  Both major themes resulted in lengthy discussions of Conrad as man and writer, followed by a review of recent trends in Conrad scholarship. Essays include: Julian Krzyzanowski, 'The Inaugural Address'; Ian Watt, 'Pink Toads and Yellow Curs: An Impressionist Narrative Device in Lord Jim'; Thomas Moser, 'Conrad, Ford and the Sources of Chance'; Eloise Knapp Hay, 'Conrad's Self-Portraiture'; Rene Rapin, 'Andre Gide's Translation of Joseph Conrad's "Typhoon"'; Gustaw Morf, 'Polish Proverbial Sayings in Conrad's Work'; Ugo Mursia, 'The Italian Source of Nostromo.

     Frederick R. Karl, ed. Joseph Conrad: A Collection of Criticism. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1975.

"This volume is designed for the student and the general reader interested in understanding the contributions of Conrad. It presents an extensive bibliography and recent criticism on Conrad: Frederick R. Karl, 'Introduction'; Bernard Meyer, 'The Secret Sharers'; Frederick R. Karl, '"Heart of Darkness": Introduction to the Danse Macabre'; Dorothy Van Ghent, 'Nostromo'; Robert Wooster Stallman, 'Time and The Secret Agent'; Albert Guerard, 'Two Versions of Anarchy: Under Western Eyes'; R. W. B. Lewis, 'The Current of Conrad's Victory'; Eloise Knapp Hay, '"The Artist of the Whole Matter"'; John A. Palmer, '"Achievement and Decline": A Bibliographical Note.'"

     Claude Thomas, ed. Studies in Joseph Conrad. Centre d'etudes et de recherches victoriennes et edouardiennes, Universite Paul-Valery, 1975.

"Studies in Joseph Conrad is a special issue of Cahiers d'Etudes et de Recherches Victoriennes et Edouardiennes dedicated to the works of Joseph Conrad. Essays include: Claude Thomas, 'Foreword'; Frederic-Jacques Temple, 'Joseph Conrad a Montpellier'; Zdzislaw Najder, 'Conrad in 1898'; Pierre Coustillas, 'Conrad and Gissing'; Jean-Jacques Mayoux, 'L'absurde et le grotesque dans l'oeuvre de Joseph Conrad'; Pierre Vitoux, 'Marlow: The Changing Narrator of Conrad's Fiction'; Francois Lombard, 'Conrad and Buddhism'; J. C. Hilson and D. Timms, 'Conrad's "An Outpost of Progress": or, the Evil Spirit of Civilization'; Germain D'Hangest, 'Sense of Life and Narrative Technique in Conrad's Lord Jim'; Joseph Dobrinsky, 'The Son-and-Lover Theme in Lord Jim'; Ivo Vidan, '"Heart of Darkness" in French Literature'; Claude Thomas, 'Structure and Narrative Technique in Under Western Eyes'; David Thorburn, 'Evasion and Candor in A Personal Record'; Jean Deurbergue, 'The Opening of Victory'; Jacky Martin, 'The Shadow-Line oules intermittences du texte.'"

     Borys Conrad. Joseph Conrad's Homes in Kent, with Photographs of the Houses as They Were in His Time and Some Biographical Notes. [The Joseph Conrad Society (UK)], [1974].

     C. B. Cox. Joseph Conrad: The Modern Imagination. J. M. Dent & Sons, 1974.

     John E. Saveson. Conrad, the Later Moralist. Rodopi, 1974.

     David Thorburn. Conrad's Romanticism. Yale University Press, 1974.

"In this book, Thorburn offers a revisionist account of Conrad's place in literary history, emphasizing his affinities with the nineteenth century and with certain important strains in Romanticism. Thorburn sees Conrad as a less nihilistic, less apocalyptic writer than is commonly assumed, a novelist whose startlingly uneven oeuvre has much to tell us about the infirmities but also the resilience of the Romantic imagination in the earlier twentieth century. Seeking continuities in Conrad's writing that have been slighted by recent critics, Thorburn first examines the lesser works, devoting particular attention to Conrad's undervalued autobiographical books and to Romance, the little-read adventure novel Conrad wrote with Ford Madox Ford. Reading the more enduring Conradian texts in light of his analysis of the minor works, Thorburn argues that Conrad habitually relied on Romantic modes of story-telling and created fictional worlds in which alienation and despair are contained, however precariously, by a stoic Romanticism grounded in a sense of human sharing and continuity. This approach seeks to illuminate the major works and measure Conrad's struggle to avoid the simplistic primitivism and melodrama that are characteristic of a debased Romanticism. Thorburn concludes with an overview in which modern fiction as a whole is seen to be less bleak, less devoted to wastelands than we have become accustomed to assume."

     Wolodymyr T. Zyla and Wendell M. Aycock, eds. Joseph Conrad: Theory and World Fiction, Proceedings of the Comparative Literature Symposium, Vol. VII, January 23, 24, and 25, 1974. Texas Tech University Press, 1974.

     Cicely Palser Havely. Heart of Darkness. Open University Press, 1973.

"This brief introduction and study guide to the novel is meant to situate it in the context of previous 19th-century novels and identify some of the significant developments it represents."

     Sybyl C. Jacobson, Robert J. Dilligan, and Todd K. Bender. A Concordance to Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Southern Illinois University Press, 1973.

     Antony Price. "Chronological Looping" in Nostromo. University of Malaya Library, 1973.

     Norman Sherry, ed. Conrad: The Critical Heritage. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973.

"Conrad is one of the major novelists of the twentieth century and his works have attracted a great deal of important discussion. Cried up, as he said, as 'an amazing bloody foreigner writing in English,' dealing with people and places that were strange to the English mind, a writer unique for his time in the technique of fiction and in his viewpoint, he was the object of both acclaim and bewilderment. This selection of critical comments traces the reception of Conrad's writings in England and America, from the first novel Almayer's Folly through to Suspense. It includes the views of H. G. Wells, Arnold Bennett, George Gissing, John Galsworthy, Ford Madox Ford, Henry James, E. M. Forster, Leonard Woolf and Somerset Maugham, and gives Conrad's personal response to their criticism."

     Ian Watt, ed. Conrad: The Secret Agent, A Casebook. Macmillan Press, 1973.

"This casebook brings together modern criticism, along with a selection of earlier reviews and comment. The introduction discusses the variations and development of critical opinion. This book aims to give its readers a heightened sense of the interest and vitality of  The Secret Agent, and of the value of a critical response. Essays include John Galsworthy, 'Joseph Conrad: A Disquisition'; Thomas Mann, 'Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent'; Hugh Walpole, from A Conrad Memorial Library; F. R. Leavis, from The Great Tradition; V. S. Pritchett, 'An Emigre'; Irving Howe, 'Conrad: Order and Anarchy'; Albert J. Guerard, 'A Version of Anarchy'; Robert D. Spector, 'Irony as Theme: Conrad's The Secret Agent'; Avrom Fleishman, 'The Symbolic World of The Secret Agent'; J. Hillis Miller, from Poets of Reality; Norman Sherry, 'The Greenwich Bomb: Outrage and The Secret Agent'; Ian Watt, 'The political and Social Background of The Secret Agent.'"

     Olivia Coolidge. The Three Lives of Joseph Conrad. Houghton Mifflin, 1972.

"Coolidge has here presented a man whose influence on letters has never been more strongly felt. She has sorted out the man from the myth, the fact from the fiction and the result is a biography this is directed to many young people who have already discovered the power of Conrad's works."

     John E. Saveson. Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Moralist. Rodopi, 1972.

     Norman Sherry. Conrad and His World. Thames and Hudson, 1972.

"Henry James, the novelist, spoke of Conrad's 'immense treasure,' his 'inexhaustible adventures.' 'No one has known--for intellectual use--the things you know,' he wrote to this enigmatic 'Polish gentleman cased in British tar.' Conrad's wide experience of men and the world provided him with a perfect foundation on which to build the characters and situations of his novels. It is this experience which Sherry tries to bring so vividly to life in this brief biography with its unique collection of photographs. He shows Conrad the adventurer embarking on his maritime career at Marseilles, working his way up through the British Merchant Marine, journeying to the Far East and, most bitter experience of all, into the 'heart of darkness' of the Congo. But there is also the writer who, at the ending of his career at sea, had, despite the enthusiastic response of English men of letters such as Edward Garnett and Ford Madox Ford, a long struggle against public indifference, which he finally and triumphantly overcame with his best-selling novel Chance. There is an immediate attraction in the richness of incident and cosmopolitan spirit of Conrad's writing derived directly from his own experience as a seaman in many parts of the world. The haunting atmospheres of his stories, set in exotic surroundings, are conveyed by a fastidiously masterful prose. But the fascination of such novels as Lord Jim and Under Western Eyes, and stories such as 'Typhoon' and 'Youth' lies much deeper: at the root of them all is a probing examination of complex moral situations viewed with an unblinking and impartial eye."

     Bruce Johnson. Conrad's Models of Mind. University of Minnesota Press, 1971.

"In an attempt to understand the psychological assumptions that lie behind the creation of a work of fiction, Johnson analyzes a number of Conrad's novels and short stories, identifying and explaining Conrad's changing conceptions or models of mind. Johnson traces Conrad's steady progression away from deductive psychology, involving such entities as will, passion, ego, or sympathy, toward a flexible, and, for the period, new psychology that had implications for his entire development as a writer. Johnson argues for certain affinities between Conrad's models of mind and those of a number of other writers, among them, Schopenhauer, Sartre, and Pascal. He shows that one aspect of Conrad's psychology was closely allied to the Schopenhauerian concept of will but that when he wrote Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, and Nostromo Conrad moved toward an existential concept of self-image and self-creation similar to Sartre's psychology in Being and Nothingness. Finally, Johnson examines Conrad's novel The Rescue and tries to show how hopeless it was for Conrad to return to earlier conceptions of mind after he had explored the new existential models."

     Ugo Mursia. The True "Discoverer" of Joseph Conrad's Literary Talent and Other Notes on Conradian Biography with Three Unpublished Letters. [Tipografica Varese], 1971.

     Royal Roussel. The Metaphysics of Darkness: A Study in the Unity and Development of Conrad's Fiction. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971.

     Virendra K. Roy. The Romance of Illusions: A Study of Joseph Conrad, with Special Reference to Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness. Doaba House, 1971.

     Robert Secor. The Rhetoric of Shifting Perspectives: Conrad's Victory. Pennsylvania State University Press, 1971.

"Behind this study of Victory are three assumptions about reading Conrad. (1) Conrad is largely interested in states of consciousness. (2) Conrad will often objectify states of consciousness. (3) Conrad's art of shifting perspectives lies in the portrayal of varying states or vehicles of consciousness within a single work. In this short monograph, Secor tries to show a mature Conrad more sure of his method as he moves from the consciousness of one character to that of another, each recreating experience in its own image. In so doing, he attempts to answer a body of criticism which sees Victory as an indication of late Conrad's failing powers. This evaluation stems from the work of Douglass Hewitt and Thomas Moser, who along with Albert Guerard had so much to do with reversing the reputation of the novel in our time. All three object to the novel's rhetoric and shifts in point of view. In the last section of this essay, Secor suggests, as a way of releasing readers from the usual expectations of more realistic novels or more traditional romances, the usefulness of Northrop Frye's system for the ironic mode."

     Norman Sherry. Conrad's Western World. Cambridge University Press, 1971.

"This books traces the sources of Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and some of the short stories related to these novels. As in his Conrad's Eastern World, Sherry provides a blend of biographical reconstruction (especially of Conrad's own harrowing experiences in the Congo) and of investigation into the originals of the main incidents and characters--Kurtz, Nostromo, Verloc and many of the minor figures as well. It has been possible to show in the study of Conrad's source material a movement away from analyses of personal experience or the narrated experiences of others to a manipulation of material entirely outside the bounds of his own experience. This change reveals also a movement in interest from personal and private dilemmas to wider and more public concerns, and shows Conrad developing a progressive sense of the frightening underside of human society. Finally, Sherry considers the play of Conrad's mind over his source material and traces the development of individual works from the given sources to the completed fiction. This reconstruction of Conrad's original materials and the tracing of their development into literary works of great distinction gives us a unique insight into Conrad's preoccupations and art."

     Bruce E. Teets and Helmut E. Gerber. Joseph Conrad: An Annotated Bibliography of Writings about Him. Northern Illinois University Press, 1971.

"The primary purpose of the bibliography is to offer scholars of Joseph Conrad a representative body of criticism of his works from 1895 through 1967. This volume contains 1,977 entries. Many of the entries annotated here have not been listed before in either general or individual bibliographies."

     Robert J. Andreach. The Slain and Resurrected God: Conrad, Ford and the Christian Myth. New York University Press, 1970.

"This book analyzes the significance of the heroic archetype in the fiction of Joseph Conrad and Ford Madox Ford. Beginning with their two novels of collaboration, The Inheritors and Romance, thematic pattern is developed to its most mature expression in Conrad's The Secret Agent, Under Western Eyes, and Victory, and in Ford's Parade's End. The heroic myth reveals our society as a parody of a culture that was once whole and vital: the hero's evolution through the stages of separation, initiation, and return mirrors the cycle by which a moribund tradition must be slain--and resurrected. Each novelist, then, recasts the material of The Inheritors in his later fiction, using the archetypal quest not only as a structural device, but as a metaphor for the cultural quest to revitalize the dead god--that is, the cultural heritage--by resurrecting the Son. And the Christian myth is reborn, though it is a myth made new for our age."

     Borys Conrad. My Father: Joseph Conrad. Coward-McCann, 1970.

"An entirely new light is shed on Joseph Conrad, the man, in this loving and illuminating portrait by his son Borys, nicknamed 'Boy' by his famous father. While much has been written about Joseph Conrad, the great novelist, this is the first time that he has been examined as a family man. J. C. (as he was known to friends and family) is shown in both light and serious moments--at work on Pent Farm (where the bulk of his best writing was done ); driving his first motorcar with great aplomb and inexperience through a fence; exploding at his friends in a wild display of his famous Polish temper, yet treating his wife with the utmost devotion and patience during her long illness. Joseph Conrad, in this unique portrait, is revealed also as a very sociable being with a host of friends, and there are numerous delightful character sketches of such literary figures of the period as Henry James, John Galsworthy, Hugh Walpole, Ford Madox Ford, and Stephen Crane. Borys Conrad's recollections of his father help the reader understand tie private life of the man behind some of the finest writing of a great era in English letters."

     Christopher Cooper. Conrad and the Human Dilemma. Barnes & Noble, 1970.

     Richard Curle. The Last of Conrad. The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), [1970].

     Wildred S. Dowden. Joseph Conrad: The Imaged Style. Vanderbilt University Press, 1970.

"In this work, Dowden traces the development of Conrad's use of imagery in the major works and in a number of short stories and novelettes. Special attention is given to The Rescue; since it was begun immediately after Conrad had completed An Outcast of the Islands, put aside, and finished 23 years later, its composition spans most of Conrad's creative career. Revisions in the manuscript of the first version attest to the author's changing awareness of the purposes and function of imagery. Beginning with an uncomplicated idea of uses of imagery, in which a single image is used again and again to evoke the same or similar emotions, Conrad, by the time he had finished his two early novels recognized the inadequacies of this one-to-one relationship of image with theme. Several short stories written at this time exhibit a more sophisticated use of imagery, in which central and related images form patterns which support theme and character development. It is upon this foundation that his reputation as an artist rests. Furthermore, an analysis of his last works indicates that, however much his imaginative powers may have failed, Conrad remained, technically, a master of his craft."

     Douglas Lindsay Mensforth. Lord Jim (Conrad). Basil Blackwell, 1970.

     Przemyslaw Mroczkowski. Conradian Commentaries.  [Panstwowe Wydawn Naukowe], 1970.

     Jadwiga Nowak. The Joseph Conrad Collection in the Polish Library in London. The Polish Library, 1970.

     Robert S. Ryf. Joseph Conrad. Columbia University Press, 1970.

     Leon Seltzer. The Vision of Melville and Conrad: A Comparative Study. Ohio University Press, 1970.

"This book sets out to explore those affinities that, viewed together, show the spiritual likeness of two great writers. By investigating the parallels in the most important works of Melville and Conrad, Seltzer attempts to illustrate how a profoundly similar outlook on life led to the preoccupation with similar themes and techniques. This book is a treatment of the resemblances between Melville and Conrad, and their common aesthetic and philosophical attitudes reveal many of the underlying complexities of their art."

     Mohammad Yaseen. Joseph Conrad's Theory of Fiction. 2nd. ed. Asia Publishing House, 1970.

"Yaseen argues that although as a creative artist Conrad had little sympathy for generalization and abstract theorizing, his own literary work bears full testimony to his conscious interest in the theoretic aspects of the art of fiction. Thus his cogitations on the art of novel as expressed in his letters and non-fictional prose assume vital significance for students of Conradiana. As against the 'brave trumpetings' of many of his contemporaries Conrad seems to retain a true balance of approach. To him art is always pragmatical and evolves with the maturity of the writer. He views the problems of his art as an inalienable part of creative activity by singling out fiction for the expression of his 'inner self' and remains loyal to his creed in his literary career. There is no glaring hiatus between his analysis and creation, between his theory and practice. We can certainly know more about Conrad and his creative genius by reading his letters and essays written from time to time. All other gifts came to him naturally and instinctively. The so-called obscurity and difficulty in understanding the novelist's work may be easily surmounted if we grasp his favourite tenets made so abundantly clear in his miscellaneous writings. Yaseen aims at studying Conrad as a whole in the light of his fictional as well as his non-fictional writings. This study is thus also an attempt at a re-assessment of Conrad's works. Conrad's novels and stories have been analysed and evaluated as illustrations of his cogitations on the art of fiction through the different phases of his growth as a novelist. Yaseen believes that Conrad's thoughts on the function and nature of fiction, even apart from their relation to his creative works, are important in themselves and merit close study."

     Theodore G. Ehrsam. A Bibliography of Joseph Conrad. Scarecrow Press, 1969.

    Lawrence Graver. Conrad's Short Fiction. University of California Press, 1969.

"Conrad's best short stories have always been considered among the finest reflection of his genius. Long novels like Lord Jim and Under Western Eyes may begin superbly and slack off; the irony of The Secret Agent harden; but 'Heart of Darkness,' 'Typhoon,' and 'The Shadow-Line' are as fine as anything of their kind in English and their flaws are venial. In this study, Graver tries to provide a complete and authoritative account of Conrad's development as a short story writer. Drawing on neglected and unpublished materials and studying in detail Conrad's relationship with his audience, Graver seeks to present a fuller understanding of the oddly varying quality of Conrad's work over the length of his career. To illuminate the major novels, he examines 'Youth,' 'Heart of Darkness,' 'Amy Foster,' 'The Secret Sharer,' and 'The Shadow-Line' in the light of ideas expressed by Conrad in a forgotten letter of 1901. Extending the implications of these ideas, Graver attempts to demonstrate how Conrad's best fiction invariably treats characters who act out of the clash between egoism and altruism in a complex and distinctively Conradian way. In the inferior stories, however, this conflict--which helps give Conrad's finest work its familiar tonality--is fragmentary or non-existent. By investigating Conrad's method of publishing his stories, Graver tries to show how the lesser tales were compromised by Conrad's need to provide high-paying magazines with stories of moderate length, thematic simplicity, and straightforward structural design."

     Frederick R. Karl. A Reader's Guide to Joseph Conrad. Rev. ed. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1969.

"Karl's extended analysis of the novels and short fiction of Conrad was first published in 1960. Since its publication, a great number of excellent studies--psychological and political as well as literary--have appeared dealing with this most complex novelist. Karl has completely revised and updated his book to accommodate this recent body of scholarship. In particular, he has provided a new interpretation of Conrad's most famous story, 'Heart of Darkness.' Conrad was a persistent experimenter in the form of the novel; his many innovations in structure have become the technical heritage of the twentieth-century writer of fiction. Karl pays special attention to the ways in which Conrad used his techniques to express his intensely rich literary themes. He also focuses, in his work-by-work guide, on the significance of Conrad's fiction for today."

     Robert E. Kuehn, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of Lord Jim: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1969.

"This volume of essays examine the genesis, the art, and the philosophical scope of Lord Jim in which Conrad brought to dramatic fulfillment his own most persistent and finally unanswerable questions about the nature of humanity. The volume includes an introduction by Robert E. Kuehn; Conrad's 'Author's Note' to Lord Jim; pertinent letters by Conrad to John Galsworthy and Edward Garnett; brief commentaries by David Daiches, Robert B. Heilman, Douglas Hewitt, Frederick Karl, and F. R. Leavis; along with a collection of extended essays.  These essays include Eloise Knapp Hay, 'Lord Jim: From Sketch to Novel'; Jocely Baines, 'Guilt and Atonement in Lord Jim'; Paul L. Wiley, 'Lord Jim and the Loss of Eden'; Tony Tanner, 'Butterflies and Beetles--Conrad's Two Truths'; and Albert J. Guerard, 'Sympathy and Judgment in Lord Jim.'"

     Robert F. Lee. Conrad's Colonialism. Mouton & Co., 1969.

     Juliet McLauchlan. Conrad: Nostromo. Edward Arnold, 1969.

"This book is designed to provide to provide a study of Nostromo, which is widely studied in high school and universities.  The emphasis is on clarification and evaluation; biographical and historical facts, while they may of course be referred to as helpful to an understanding of particular elements in Conrad's work, will be subordinated to critical discussion.  What kind of work is this? What exactly goes on here? How good is this work, and why? These are the questions which McLaughlan tries to answer.

     Elmer A. Ordonez. The Early Joseph Conrad: Revisions and Style. University of the Philippines Press, 1969.

"The book on Conrad's revisions and style attempts to show that Conrad, in his first years as a writer, deliberately and conscientiously developed verbal patterns which are central to his early style. Ordonez argues that the revisions which he undertook in two phases (not true of all his works)--from manuscript to print (serial or book) and from serial to first edition--indicate that in his years from literary apprenticeship to master craftsmanship (taking place well within the early period of his career) he was concerned with stylistic matters: rhythm, description, and tendered and reported speech. Ordonez also suggests that these verbal aspects transcend linguistic boundaries and determine to a considerable extent the structure of the stories. As a result, this discussion can not be kept on a purely linguistic level; esthetic problems are invariably linked with any verbal effort in prose fiction."

     John A. Palmer, ed. Twentieth Century Interpretations of The Nigger of the "Narcissus": A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1969.

"A collection of essays including: John A. Palmer, 'Introduction'; James E. Miller, Jr., 'The Nigger of the "Narcissus": A Re-examination'; Vernon Young, 'Trial by Water: Joseph Conrad's The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Cecil Scrimgeour, 'Jimmy Wait and the Dance of Death: Conrad's Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Albert J. Guerard, 'The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Marvin Mudrich, 'The Artist's Conscience and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Ian Watt, 'Conrad Criticism and The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Avrorn Fleishman, 'Conrad's Early Political Attitudes'; Norris W. Yates, 'Social Comment in The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Paul L. Wiley, 'The Nigger and Conrad's Artistic Growth'; Bernard C. Meyer, M.D., 'On the Psychogenesis of the Nigger.'"

     Stanton de Voren Hoffman. Comedy and Form in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1969.

     C. T. Watts, ed. Joseph Conrad's Letters to R. B. Cunninghame Graham. Cambridge University Press, 1969.

     Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. 2nd ed. Bowes & Bowes, 1968.

     Paul Kirschner. Conrad: The Psychologist as Artist. Oliver & Boyd, 1968.

"In this biographical, critical, and comparative study of Conrad, Kirschner begins by sketching his life up to 1894, the starting-point of his literary career. Making full use of the latest research by Polish scholars, and of some personal reminiscences by one of Conrad's neighbours in Kent, Kirschner argues that Conrad's early experience of life helped to determine his imaginative and philosophical outlook. In the next four chapters, Kirschner explores Conrad's vision of the self in isolation, in society, and in relation to the opposite sex. Instead of applying any preconceived psychological or psychoanalytical theory to Conrad's work, Kirschner considers Conrad as himself a psychologist and reveals the subtlety and the versatility with which he applied his psychological ideas to his own personal experience and also to material derived from other sources. The unity of Kirschner's critical approach is meant to safeguard him against the danger of misinterpreting any of Conrad's individual works; and in challenging such misinterpretations, he offers his own solutions of some of the critical problems which arise in connection with Lord Jim, 'Heart of Darkness,' Chance, and especially 'The Secret Sharer.' In the last two chapters of this book, Kirschner examines in detail the influence that several other contemporary imaginative writers exerted an Conrad's work. Conrad's extensive borrowings, from Turgenev. Anatole France, and above all from Maupassant, have escaped critical recognition for half a century. Yet, Kirschner attempts to show that they reveal how Conrad's imagination worked, thus helping to clarify his artistic intentions, and may also enable us to see Conrad in his true intellectual tradition, which owed more to Continental than to English thought and literature."

     S. B. Liljegren. Joseph Conrad as a "Prober of Feminine Hearts": Notes on the Novel The Rescue (with an Appendix). A. B. Lundequistska Bokhandeln, 1968.

     John A. Palmer. Joseph Conrad's Fiction: A Study in Literary Growth. Cornell University Press, 1968.

     Dale B. J. Randall, ed. Joseph Conrad and Warrington Dawson: The Record of a Friendship. Duke University Press, 1968.

     J. I. M. Stewart. Joseph Conrad. Dodd, Mead & Co., 1968.

"In this book, Stewart presents not only a compact biography but a critical survey of Conrad's major novels. In turn Conrad's foremost achievements are discussed: The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'; Youth; Heart of Darkness; Typhoon; The End of the Tether; Lord Jim; Nostromo; The Secret Agent; Under Western Eyes; Chance; Victory; The Secret Sharer; and The Shadow-Line. The discussion concludes with an Epilogue--look backward, and forward to the closing years of Conrad's life."

     Avrom Fleischman. Conrad's Politics: Community and Anarchy in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1967.

"This study disputes the conventional view of Conrad's political conservatism. By setting Conrad's thought and fiction in their contemporary intellectual milieu, Fleishman reveals them as a complex response to the forces of anarchy threatening the modern world--a response that did not express despair of either the value or the possibility of organic community. Previous critics, Fleishman contends, have divorced the political strains in Conrad's fiction from their contexts, and have oversimplified his thought as a result of current political attitudes. Conrad's Politics, on the other hand, attempts to place this modern novelist in a two-centuries-old tradition of Continental political thought and English literary practice. In his account of Conrad's Polish background, Fleishman tries to show that the dominant influence within Conrad's family was exerted from the democratic-revolutionary side, not the mystical and conservative side represent by his father. Fleishman traces the evolution of Conrad's response to contemporary events from his youthful ultramontanism to his later belief in specific social and international goals. He describes the influence of such diverse contemporary movements as the Fabian Society and the Oxford neo-Hegelians, and shows how the organic view of history that underlay Conrad's curiosity about the past found expression in a tragic vision which did not exclude hope for the future."

     James Guetti. The Limits of Metaphor: A Study of Melville, Conrad, and Faulkner. Cornell University Press, 1967.

     Robert R. Hodges. The Dual Heritage of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1967.

"Joseph Conrad was the product of two contrary influences which, as long as they existed in the form of an opposition or tension in his mind, gave rise to his best writings. The first influence was that of his father, Apollo Korzeniowski, a romantic Polish poet and patriot committed to the contemporary doctrines of national messianism, and a highly emotional and forceful personality. The other influence on conrad was that of his maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski, his guardian after his father’s death. He taught Conrad to fear the instability, impracticality, and egoism of his father, and encouraged him to control these by settling in a definite profession. His steadying moral influence became for Conrad a type of beneficient relationship between a spiritual father an a young man whom he initiates into maturity and a profession, the traditional ethics of which become a bulwark of duty against evil and irrationality. Several times in both of his sea and literary careers Conrad repeated this relationship. Filling however, both the roles of sone and of father. Conrad’s literary productive inner conflict ended when he reconciled his two inner forces and discharched his patriotic debt to Poland and his father. The reconciliation occurs in 'Prince Roman' (1911), a portrait of a Polish insurrectionary hero. In this character Conrad combines traits drawn from both the Korzeniowskis and the Bobrowskis which he once thought opposed or incompatible. During world War I and afterwards in essays intended to influence British policy in Poland’s favor, Conrad expressed his uncritical loyalty to Poland, using ideas of romantic nationalism incompatible with his earlier political pessimism. After many years of embarrassed silence, he openly defended his father by insisting on the similarities of both Korzeniowskis and Bobrowskis as patriotic, socially conservative Poles. Thsi reconciliation of the ocnflicting forces in hsi mind, reinforced by belated popularity and deeply felt patriotic demands during the war, wrought changes in Conrad’s personality and writing. Accepting conventional and sentimental vlaues such as anti-intellicutalism, middle-class gentility, and an easy tolerance for human faults, he saw himself in the role of an old seaman-patriot and harmless professional ententainer. In the first two chapters of this study the author is discussing the nature of the two influences on Conrad and their direct effect on his mind and his writing. The last two chapters discuss Conrad’s apparent reconciliation of the two influences, his own uncritical acceptance of his father’s nationalism, and the unfortunate effects of these inner changes upon his personality and his writing."

     Bernard C. Meyers. Joseph Conrad: A Psychoanalytic Biography. Princeton University Press, 1967.

     Claire Rosenfield. Paradise of Snakes: An Archetypal Analysis of Conrad's Political Novels. University of Chicago Press, 1967.

     Donald C. Yelton. Mimesis and Metaphor: An Inquiry into the Genesis and Scope of Conrad's Symbolic Imagery. Mouton & Co., 1967.

     Andrzej Busza. Conrad's Polish Literary Background and Some Illustrations of the Influence of Polish Literature on His Work. Antemurale. Vol. 10. 1966, 109-255.

"Conrad's Polish background has already received a certain amount of attention, especially from his biographers. However, there has been no systematic study of the influence of Polish literature on his work. In this book, Busza tries, first, to show why one should expect to find traces of Polish literary influence in Conrad's writings, and, secondly, to give some illustrations of that influence. The main aim of this book is to show that the 'cultural baggage,' which Conrad took with hi to sea, was no as slight as is sometimes imagined.  Busza attempts to show this, first, by a discussion of the two men who dominated Conrad's early life: his father, Apollo Korzeniowski, and this maternal uncle, Tadeusz Bobrowski; and, second, by an examination of the various Polish circles and milieus with which Conrad came in contact in his childhood and youth.  Further, Busza attempts to show that the cultural background, which Conrad thus acquired, and especially Polish literature, remained a vital force throughout his life, and, in fact, exerted a considerable influence over his writing.  To try to substantiate this, several illustrations from Conrad's works are given, where Busza argues the influence of Polish literature is particularly evident."

     Robert Morris. Barron's Simplified Approach to Lord Jim Joseph Conrad. Barron's Educational Series, 1966.

"This book is meant to be a key to real understanding and enjoyment of Lord Jim.  Morris discusses Conrad as a person to know; tells why and how he was inspired to write as he did; and explains customs and historical background to Lord Jim. Morris then gives a detailed, analytical summary of the novel--spiced with direct quotes and allusions--to illustrate the actual style, content and meaning of the novel. This book contains an introduction to Conrad and his work, followed by a chapter-by-chapter plot synopsis and critical commentary, 'A Discussion of the Novel in Retrospect,' 'Study Guide Questions,' a 'Selected Criticism' section, and a bibliography."

     Robert Morris. Barron's Simplified Approach to Victory Joseph Conrad. Barron's Educational Series, 1966.

"This book is meant to be a key to real understanding and enjoyment of Victory.  Morris discusses Conrad as a person to know; tells why and how he was inspired to write as he did; and explains customs and historical background to Victory. Morris then gives a detailed, analytical summary of the novel--spiced with direct quotes and allusions--to illustrate the actual style, content and meaning of the novel. This book contains an introduction to Conrad and his work, followed by a chapter-by-chapter plot synopsis and critical commentary, 'A Discussion of the Novel in Retrospect,' 'Study Guide Questions,' a 'Selected Criticism' section, and a bibliography."

     Marvin Mudrick, ed. Conrad: A Collection of Critical Essays. Prentice-Hall, 1966.

"While critics agree on the importance and influence of Conrad, they have not arrived at a consensus about the nature of his achievement or the relative merits of his novels. The essays in the volume, attempt to provide a consistent and comprehensive estimate. These writings introduce us to the private crises of Conrad's heroes, illuminate Conrad's idea of honor and justice, explore the dramatic and moral issues woven into his narratives, and ultimately document the vitality and mystery of Conrad's powerful vision of life. Essays include Marvin Murdrick, 'Introduction'; Max Beerbohm, 'The Feast'; Albert Guerard, 'On The Nigger of the "Narcissus"'; Marvin Murdrick, 'The Originality of Conrad'; Stephen A. Reid, 'The "Unspeakable Rites" in Heart of Darkness'; Douglas Hewitt, 'Lord Jim: Conrad the the "Few Simple Notions"'; Paul L. Wiley, 'Conrad's Solitaries'; Daniel Curley, 'Legate of the Ideal'; Jocelyn Baines, 'Nostromo: Politics, Fiction, and the Uneasy Expatriate'; Morton Dauwen Zabel, 'Introduction to Under Western Eyes'; Thomas Moser, 'Conrad's "Later Affirmation"'; Ford Madox Ford, 'Conrad on the Theory of Fiction.'"

     Neville H. Newhouse. Joseph Conrad. Evans Brothers, 1966.

"Conrad is the novelist of the extreme situation attracted by the lushly romantic, concerned with the highly colored, the implausible, the mysterious. His themes, written decades ago, still speak with vigor and meaning for today. Conrad's characters are imprisoned in the fundamental isolation of every human being and try desperately, in an unconcerned universe, to give their lives meaning. He was one of the first writers to lay bare the tensions between black and white. Chance, Nostromo, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Heart of Darkness, Typhoon, The Outcast at the Islands, Lord Jim, and other works are seen from the point of view of story and character, narration, thematic content, impressionistic style. This book sets out the background to Conrad's life and times, furnishes a conspectus of his work and signposts the criticism that is most important to present-day study. Newhouse's aim has been to select the essentials of each subject and to present them in such a way as to give a concise, useful and realistic perspective to the reader of today."

     Edward W. Said. Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography. Harvard University Press, 1966.

"Using Conrad's letters for the first time as a key to the understanding of his mind and his work, Said shows that there is an important parallel between the way Conrad viewed his own life and the manner as well as the form of his stories. Unlike most critics, Said chooses Conrad's short fiction as most characteristic of his work and, using the insights gained from a phenomenological approach, analyzes Conrad's structures of consciousness to reveal how Conrad literally formed his life and then reformed it in his fiction."

     Norman Sherry. Conrad's Eastern World. Cambridge University Press, 1966.

"A book for those interested in Conrad's life and work and/or literary detection performed. Sherry investigates how well Conrad knew the East and how the original material he garnered there was supplemented from other sources; he also shows what Conrad made of his experiences, thus revealing clearly what the artist;'s own contribution was."

     Norah Smaridge. Master Mariner: The Adventurous Life of Joseph Conrad. Hawthorn Books, 1966.

"Conrad was a man of great abilities and astonishing contrasts. He was the author of some of the finest novels ever written in English, including Lord Jim--yet he could not speak a word of English until he was twenty-one. He achieved world fame as an author--but his great ambition was to be a seaman, and he left landlocked Poland when he was sixteen to go to sea. During the next twenty years he worked his way up from cabin boy to captain in the British merchant marine while voyaging to the West Indies, Australia and the Orient. He tried gun-running, wooed a beautiful adventuress, and traveled a thousand miles up the Congo River into the heart of Africa. In his travels he came to know the fascinating seamen--adventurers, traders and ne'er-do-wells of exotic ports from Marseille to Bangkok. Then, when he was thirty-six, Conrad's life changed abruptly. He finished and published a story he had begun writing in dull moments at sea. The story, about the fate of a man he had met in Borneo, was an immediate success, and the career of Joseph Conrad, author, was launched. Conrad lived quietly in England for the rest of his life, writing. Into his masterpieces of fiction went the people, events, scenes and stories from his life at sea. In his books, the master story-teller re-created the adventurous life of Joseph Conrad, master mariner."

     David R. Smith. Conrad's Manifesto: Preface to a Career, the History of the Preface to The Nigger of the "Narcissus" with facsimiles of the manuscripts. Philip H. and A. S. W. Rosenbach Foundation, 1966.

     Jerry Allen. The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad. Doubleday & Co., 1965.

"Henry James once wrote to Conrad: 'No one has known--for intellectual use--the things you know, and you have, as the artist of the whole matter, an authority that no one has approached.' Today, of course, Conrad is considered one of the foremost English authors of the twentieth century; and his seafaring experiences--during the hazardous shipping era when 130 vessels could be listed by Lloyd's of London as lost in a single day--provide valuable insight into Conrad's later career as a novelist. This biography is the product of ten years of extensive research, utilizing the records discovered in fifteen countries, the majority never before published. Many of Conrad's adventures, developed in his fiction, are presented here for the first time. These include his contact with the 1876 revolution in Colombia and his use of it in Nostromo; the sensational sea incident of 1880 and the part played in it by a young man Conrad knew, re-created in Lord Jim; the two shipboard deaths drawn upon for The Nigger of the 'Narcissus'; the Congo episode behind Heart of Darkness; the American with whom Conrad fought a duel in Marseilles and wrote of in The Arrow of Gold; the original of his hero 'Tom Lingard'; the people and history of the Malay settlement in Borneo (a wilderness village long hunted for and only now identified through the discovery of gravestones in the jungle) brought into such novels as Almayer's Folly, Lord Jim, An Outcast of the Islands, and The Rescue. Illustrated with many rare and previously unpublished photographs, and including an Appendix detailing Conrad's voyages and naming his shipmates, The Sea Years of Joseph Conrad offers a narrative for the general reader and new material for the scholar."

     Ted E. Boyle. Symbol and Meaning in the Fiction of Joseph Conrad. Mouton & Co., 1965.

"This book examines in detail the manner in which Conrad constructed his fictional worlds and the moral principles which he intended these worlds to embody. Thus, both the special genius which Conrad brought to English literature and the meaning of some of his most significant novels and stories are more clearly defined. Boyle's analysis of the complex pattern of symbol and myth in 'Heart of Darkness' suggests that the story is not as bitterly pessimistic as some critics would maintain; that it is, a statement of qualified optimism. Boyle also examines Almayer's Folly, The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Lord Jim, 'Typhoon,' 'The Secret Sharer,' The Shadow-Line, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, and Victory and attempts to show that in each story Conrad employed intricate symbolism in order to demonstrate his conception of the moral order of the universe. Such an examination seeks to defend Conrad against some of the attacks of his severer critics. Thus, Boyle argues that Almayer's Folly is not so ill-conceived as some readers would suggest; that the often-attacked tediousness of the first chapters of The Shadow-Line does not represent a failure of Conrad's creative powers; that Nostromo is a novel with a definite center of interest; that The Secret Agent is not an exercise in bitterness and despair; that Victory represents a moral affirmation, and that the character of Axel Heyst is in perfect harmony with the fictional world which Conrad has created. Throughout the book, the focus is on the symbolic intricacies of Conrad's narratives."

     Leo Gurko. The Two Lives of Joseph Conrad. Thomas Y. Crowell, 1965.

"Conrad's two lives, as master mariner and superlative storyteller, are chronicled here with a sensitive appreciation of the writer's art. For Conrad's novels are more than retellings of the dramatic events in which he participated and the exotic lands to which he sailed, and Gurko shows how this material (colorful in itself) was transmuted into something far greater: novels and tales of searching intelligence, full of life and truth. Conrad's personality was complex, his life demanding. Gurko gives a portrait of both."

     J. Hillis Miller. Poets of Reality: Six Twentieth-Century Writers. Harvard University Press, 1965.

     Edmund A. and Henry T. Bojarski, eds. Joseph Conrad: A Bibliography of Masters' Theses and Doctoral Dissertations, 1917-1963. University of Kentucky Libraries, 1964.

     C. B. Cox. Nostromo (Joseph Conrad): Notes on English Literature. Basil Blackwell, 1964.

"This book is an introduction to Nostromo and is designed primarily for the school, college, and university student, although it is hoped that they will be found helpful by a much larger audience. Three aims have been kept in mind: (A) To give the reader the relevant information necessary for his fuller understanding of the work. (B) To indicate the main areas of critical interest, to suggest suitable critical approaches, and to point out possible critical difficulties. (C) To do this in as simple and lucid a manner as possible, avoiding technical jargon and giving a full explanation of any critical terms employed. This introduction contains questions on the text and suggestions for further reading."

     Zdzislaw Najder, ed. Conrad's Polish background: Letters to and from Polish Friends. Trans. Halina Carroll. Oxford University Press, 1964.

The main contents of this volume are some seventy letters to Conrad fro his uncle and guardian, Tadeusz Bobrowski, and over a hundred from Conrad to various Polish correspondents. Many of these letters are previously unpublished and almost none had before appeared in English. Some of Conrad’s letters belong to the time when he wrote no English and many contain invaluable biographical or psychological material, including information about his marriage. Bobrowski’s letter shed further light on Conrad personality; it is in fact his writings that provide most of our knowledge of the first thirty years of Conrad’s life. There are also two letters from Bobrowski, setting out details of Conrad’s family and financial position; and Conrad’s ‘Political Memorandum’ drafted in 1914, in which he expresses his ideas about the future of Europe. There are notes explaining the circumstances of the letters and an Introduction giving general information about the social, cultural, and political environment in which Conrad grew up, his later contacts with Poles, and the influence of his Polish readings on his books. The intention of the volume is to provide a standard work for any future study of Conrad’s Polish heritage. Apart from its documentary and academic value, the book will have a wider appeal as the first comprehensive account of a lesser-known side of this unique bi-national writer.

     Eloise Knapp Hay. The Political Novels of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Study. University of Chicago Press, 1963.

     Tony Tanner. Conrad: Lord Jim. Edward Arnold, 1963.

"This book is therefore designed to provide a study of Lord Jim, which is widely studied in the universities.  The emphasis is on clarification and evaluation; biographical and historical facts, while they may, of course, be referred to as helpful to an understanding of particularly elements of Conrad's work, will be subordinated to critical discussion.  What kind of work is this? What exactly goes on here? How good is this work, and why? These are the questions which Tanner tries to answer."

     Leo Gurko. Joseph Conrad: Giant in Exile. Macmillan Publishing Co., 1962.

"Conrad is one of the giants of modern literature. He wrote his great works in a language that he did not even begin learning until the age of twenty, yet he became not only a great English novelist but a supreme stylist and master of the language. In this study of his life and work, Gurko attempts to show us the whole of Conrad's achievement in a new way. Here are the dramatic highlights of Conrad's childhood in Poland and his youth in France, and the change in his late thirties to a new career as a writer with its long, anguished period of public neglect climaxed by ultimate success. As a boy, Conrad shared his father's exile in Russia, and afterward fled from his native Poland. As a seaman in the British merchant marine and later as a writer in England, he remained an outsider. Exile became one of Conrad's great themes: his characters are not only removed from their native place but exiled from their own selves which they passionately seek to regain. In a series of chapters, Gurko tries to throw fresh light on The Nigger of the 'Narcissus,' Lord Jim, Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, The Secret Agent and the other classic tales of the celebrated storyteller. Conrad's complex personality and his remarkable qualities as an artist emerge as the heroic achievement of a man who prophetically defined the world in which we live and helped shape the sensibility that enables us to grapple with it."

     Adam Gillon. The Eternal Solitary: A Study of Joseph Conrad. Bookman Associates, 1960.

"This book presents a critical analysis of Conrad's life and works, examining the reasons for Conrad's preoccupation with the theme of isolation and its relation Conrad's own life, to the cultural and literary heritage of Poland and to his reading of English and French literature. Gillon discusses such subjects as the power of illusion, which time and drives Conrad's heroes to cut themselves off from organized society to follow their own dreams, only to feel in the end that they have committed what amounts to an act of treason. Gillon examines the themes of betrayal and redemption and the role of fate in Conrad's works and shows Conrad's inner contradictions and his conflicting feelings about betrayal and romantic egoism. Conrad's handling of these themes demonstrates affinities with the romantics and the Victorians, but even more with the moderns, for he is primarily engaged in a quest for true knowledge of the self. This search reveals basic ideas that are implied throughout the body of Conrad's work, the chief precept being that human beings cannot bear moral solitude without going mad or being destroyed, and if for one reason or another they must follow their dreams, they must also accept punishment for their voluntary isolation. Conrad's work is related to that of Polish romantic and positivist writers and also to the work of a number of contemporary English, American, and European novelists, including Faulkner, Woolf, Malraux, Camus and Joyce. Gillon singles out Jean-Paul Sartre as a novelist who exhibits both significant similarities and dissimilarities with Conrad. He compares Conrad's philosophy with Sartrean existenialism, tracing extremely interesting parallels. Gillon argues that Conrad's heroes suffer as much as Sartre's do, almost invariably meeting with violent deaths or languishing in solitude, but even in a state of isolation or defeat they are an affirmation of human fidelity and compassion."

     James L. Guetti, Jr. The Rhetoric of Joseph Conrad. Amherst College Press, 1960.

"This pamphlet considers a use of language that is peculiar to Conrad--language that has been called 'magical' and 'spellbinding' as well as 'disparate,' 'repetitious,' and 'obscure.' Guetti attempts to describe this language and its effects upon the meaning of the world of adventure, upon the meaning, even, of life."

     Frederick R. Karl. A Reader's Guide to Joseph Conrad. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1960.

"One of the most widely discussed modern authors who wrote in English, Joseph Conrad was a persistent experimenter in the form of the novel; his many innovations in structure have become the technical heritage of the 20th-century writer of fiction. In this extended analysis of Conrad's novels and shorter fiction, special attention is given to tile significance of the works today and to the ways in which Conrad used his techniques to implement his literary ideas."

     Ludwik Krzyzanowski, ed. Joseph Conrad: Centennial Essays. The Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, 1960.

"The essays assembled here have--with one exception--originally appeared in The Polish Review. In their present form they represent--again with one exception--revised and augmented and, it is hoped, improved versions of the articles as originally printed. The underlying theme of the essays included in this volume is the exploration of Conrad's Polish antecedents, connections and interests, a subject that still seems to require considerable study and elucidation. Such a study may ultimately form the basis for a convincing demonstration of Conrad's link with, and indebtedness to, the canon of Polish literature. Essays include: Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Introduction'; Alexander Janta, 'Conrad's Place and Rank in American Letters'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad's "Prince Roman": Fact and Fiction'; Przemyslaw Mroczkowski, 'A Conrad Family Heirloom at Harvard'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad: Some Polish Documents'; Adam Gillon, 'Joseph Conrad in Present-Day Poland'; Ludwik Krzyzanowski, 'Joseph Conrad: A Bibliographical Note.'"

       R. W. Stallman, ed. The Art of Joseph Conrad: A Critical Symposium. Michigan State University Press, 1960.

"In this volume are most of the critically rewarding analyses of Conrad's works by European and American writers and critics including Andre Gide, Thomas Mann, Dorothy Van Ghent, and Robert Penn Warren, among others."

     Osborn Andreas. Joseph Conrad: A Study in Non-Conformity. Philosophical Library, 1959.

"This study of complete fiction of Joseph Conrad was written for those for whom literature is a quest, an excited search for meaning that will illuminate issues deeply troubling to both writer and reader. To uncover the basic nature of the tension created and resolved in each of Conrad's novels and short stories, the author has identified the main character and analyzed the problem with which he struggles. Attempting to probe into ever deeper levels of meaning embedded in the narratives, he aims to reach a bedrock foundation which unites all of Conrad's forty-two works in one interrelated cluster of meanings. His argument is that the principal situation with which Conrad was concerned was the point of contact between the individual and the social group. Since every Conrad narrative bears upon this theme, from one direction or another, the phenomenon of non-conformity is thus seen to be the novelist's absorbing interest and even his obsessive preoccupation. The neurosis which hovered over, and often deeply involved, Conrad's characters has become, fifty years later, the predominant neurosis of our time. Its investigation, therefore, affords us both deeper involvement in the author's work and further enlightenment about ourselves."

     Jocelyn Baines. Joseph Conrad: A Critical Biography. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959.

     Jerry Allen. The Thunder and the Sunshine: A Biography of Joseph Conrad. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1958.

"Based on new and unpublished material, this is a biography of Joseph Conrad, one of the world's great novelists. A passionate, intense man, Conrad led a life as dramatic as his novels. There was little of the world he did not know, little of danger or tragedy. When illness ended his sea-roving at the age of thirty-seven, he turned to writing novels so realistic and wide in compass that they are listed among the world's classics. Conrad's youthful romance at the age of nineteen was as stormy as his seaman's career, identified for the first time in this biography is the original of Rita in The Arrow of Gold, the 'woman of all time' over whom he claimed to have fought a duel in Marseilles. Conrad throughout his life never disclosed her name, and the mystery of her name has long been known as the 'Conrad Enigma.' This biography seeks to provide a new understanding of the effects of Conrad's life upon his writing. Giving special attention to Conrad's boyhood in Poland and Russia, and emphasizing the years he lived in Marseilles, this biography focuses on much about the formative years of one of the most mysterious and romantic figures in modem English literature."

     William Blackburn, ed. Joseph Conrad: Letters to William Blackwood and David S. Meldrum. Duke University Press, 1958.

     Albert J. Guerard. Conrad the Novelist. Harvard University Press, 1958.

"It is only recently that Conrad, the tragic novelist of first rank, has begun to emerge from the misconceptions with which his later sentimental and inferior novels have obscured him. Guerard focuses on the full complexity of Conrad's art and mind; and attempts to explain the way in which the novelist found his own fictional world and his own methods. Examining all of Conrad's novels from Almayer's Folly to Suspense, Guerard centers his attention on a few a major books, the master works of impressionism with which Conrad criticism must come to terms. Two in particular, Lord Jim and Nostromo, receive perhaps the most thorough study yet made. Under the sympathetic but rigorous questioning, Conrad appears as an artist who was able to turn his temperamental traits of evasiveness and detachment into great fictional strengths, a writer whose greatest creativity was aroused by the inward conflict of a strong, rational skepticism and an underlying sympathy for the outlaw. Numerous illustrative comparisons show Conrad as the forerunner of such writers as F. Scott Fitzgerald, Graham Greene, and William Faulkner, and they strongly suggest that his insights would have been better understood in today's world than they were in his own. Guerard pays particular attention to the part played by technique--in the development of Conrad's writing, and attempts to show that the varying quality of Conrad's style is a reliable vital index to his fiction. The significance of these discussions carries far beyond technique itself into mysterious interactions of personality and subject matter. Exacting and uncompromising criticism of a great writer can give the appearance on occasion of attacking the greatness without measuring or illuminating the writer, in a sense belittling both the critic and the subject. Without glossing a fault or minimizing a failure, Guerard leaves Conrad an even more towering figure than before, his rewarding and almost infinite complexity accessible to the reader in new depths of perspective."

     Mieczyslaw Brahmer and Polska Akademia Nauk, Komitet Neofilologiczny, eds. Joseph Conrad Korzeniowski: Essays and Studies, Studia i Szkice. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1958.

"These essays were reprinted from a special number 1-2, 1958 of Kwartalnik Neofilolgiczny (Neophilological Quarterly), which was issues by the Neophilological Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences in connection with the Conrad Centenary Celebrations held in Warsaw during the 3rd and 4th of December 1957. Essays include Richard Curle, 'My Impressions of the Conrad Centenary Celebrations'; M. C. Bradbrook, 'Conrad and the Tragic Imagination'; Jocelyn Baines, 'Joseph Conrad--Raw Material into Art'; Ivo Vidan, 'Some Aspects of Structure in the Works of Conrad'; Witold Chwalewik, 'Conrad and the Literary Tradition'; Stanislaw Helsztynski, 'Joseph Conrad--czlowiek i tworca'; Wit Tarnawski, 'O artystycznej osobowosci i formie Conrada'; Ivo Vidan, 'Conrad in Yugoslavia'; Roza Jablkowska, 'Z angielskich i amerykanskich studiow nad Conradem'; and Roza Jablkowska, 'Polska conradystyka za granica.'"

     Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad and His Characters: A Study of Six Novels. William Heinemann, 1957.

     Robert F. Haugh. Joseph Conrad: Discovery in Design. University of Oklahoma Press, 1957.

     Irving Howe. Politics and the Novel. Horizon Press, 1957.

     Gerard Jean-Aubry. The Sea Dreamer: A Definitive Biography of Joseph Conrad. Trans. Helen Sebba. Doubleday & Co., 1957.

     Kenneth A. Lohf and Eugene P. Sheehy. Joseph Conrad at Mid-Century: Editions and Studies 1895-1955. University of Minnesota Press, 1957.

"Published in the centennial year of Joseph Conrad's birth, this is the first comprehensive bibliography of the writings by and about this important author. Though there is a current revival of interest in Conrad's work, criticism and scholarship devoted to this celebrated novelist and short story writer have lagged behind that of other major twentieth-century authors. This compendium of data about the growing body of Conrad literature should stimulate further interest by bringing together a vast amount of reference information that has been widely scattered until now. The bibliography lists works by Conrad, including serializations, significant translations, and film adaptations, and writings about Conrad, including book and periodical material in western languages, appearing from 1895, the year of publication of Almayer's Folly, through 1955. There are a total of 1200 numbered entries containing approximately 3000 items. In the first section, devoted to Conrad's works, the enumeration of English and American editions is followed by the listing of translations. Most of Conrad's essays and may of his novels were serialized before they appeared in book form, and these serializations are listed here also. The second section lists the studies of Conrad's life and works, as published in books, pamphlets, periodical articles, and reviews. Data are included on bibliographies, commemorative issues of periodicals, criticism of individual works and of Conrad's work in general, and parodies and other miscellany."

     Thomas Moser. Joseph Conrad: Achievement and Decline. Harvard University Press, 1957.

     Janina Zabielska. Joseph Conrad, 1857-1924: Catalogue of an Exhibition Organised by the Polish Library at the Request of the Union of Polish Writers Abroad to Commemorate Mr. John Conrad's Lecture at the General Sikorski Historical Institute on the 30th of Oct. 1956. The Polish Library, 1956.

     E. H. Visiak. The Mirror of Conrad. Werner Laurie, 1955.

"For Visiak the mirror of Conrad is that long row of tales and novels which are so astonishing a legacy from the first part of this century. It is a mirror in parts crystal clear, and in others clouded and crazed; yet, to find the whole man, it must everywhere be scrutinised with minute attention, and this is what Visiak has sought to do. Parts of Conrad's work are frankly autobiographical; parts are reputedly so; and parts are pure romance, yet all reflect some strange facet of this strange, impressive and fascinating genius. For Conrad was a man of formidable genius, in his life as well as in his work. This biography is at once a record of that life and a study of the work it produced."

     Paul L. Wiley. Conrad's Measure of Man. University of Wisconsin Press, 1954.

     Douglas Hewitt. Conrad: A Reassessment. Bowes & Bowes, 1952.

"In this book, Hewitt presents a general critical view of the novels and short stories of Conrad. He begins by showing how the settings and structure of Conrad's works enable him to present a world which is convincingly real and at the same time naturally symbolic of the inner problems of his central characters. Detailed considerations of such works as 'Heart of Darkness,' Lord Jim and Nostromo follow, and an analysis of 'The Secret Sharer' leads to a discussion of the change that came over his work at about the time when this story was written. Two of the later novels are studied in detail and their weaknesses related to Conrad's evasion of the pessimism of the earlier books."

     Oliver Warner. Joseph Conrad. Longmans, Green and Co., 1951.

"This one of the Men and Books series and is both a life of Conrad and a critical assessment of his work. It is an introduction to Conrad and is based on the latest published research. It includes a bibliography and illustrations."

     Oliver Warner. Joseph Conrad. Longmans, Green & Co. for The British Council and National Book League, 1950.

"This pamphlet is one of the Bibliographical Series of Supplements to British Book News. It is a short appreciation of Conrad's works and also contains a select bibliography."

     Walter F. Wright. Romance and Tragedy in Joseph Conrad. University of Nebraska Press, 1949.

     F. R. Leavis. The Great Tradition: George Eliot, Henry James, Joseph Conrad. George W. Stewart, Publisher, [1948].

     Albert Guerard, Jr. Joseph Conrad. New Directions, 1947.

     M. C. Bradbrook. Joseph Conrad, Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalcez Korzeniowski: Poland's English Genius. Cambridge University Press, 1941.

     J. H. Retinger. Conrad and His Contemporaries: Souvenirs. Minerva Publishing Co., 1941.

"Retinger's life paralleled closely that of Conrad. They were both born in Poland and came as young men to England, where they met when Conrad was just beginning to carve for himself the literary career which lifted him to the heights of world renown. The two friends moved in the same circles and shared intellectual interests. Their friendship lasted until Conrad's death. Conrad showed to his friend Retinger a side of his life unknown to his other contemporaries and biographers. Their common roots and language formed a strong bond between them, and it was Retinger who brought Conrad back to Poland after an absence of forty years. By an odd coincidence, Conrad's homecoming occurred on the day when war was declared in 1914. This book is a collection of souvenirs and reminiscences by the author, containing insights into Conrad's life and personality."

     John A. Gee and Paul J. Sturm, trans. and eds. Letters of Joseph Conrad to Marguerite Poradowska, 1890-1920. Yale University Press, 1940.

     John Dozier Gordan. Joseph Conrad: The Making of a Novelist. Harvard University Press, 1940.

"This study is focused upon the early years of his long career as a writer, when he drove himself to become a professional. It attempts to picture the dominant factors in his life and the way in which they affected his work. By bringing the problems of the creator into closer touch with the creation, it may supplement a reading of the stories themselves. Without attempting to be a full biography, the study necessarily draws upon Conrad's reminiscences and letters, some of them unpublished, and upon biographical studies. The play of temperament in his development as sailor and writer, the influence of poverty and illness on his work could not otherwise be displayed. Without attempting to be a general criticism, the study analyzes the sources of his stories. It traces the evolution of plot and characterization through the manuscript and typescript, never before discussed in print, of three early novels. It compares manuscript, typescript, serial and book publication to show Conrad's unremitting care for style."

     A Conrad Memorial Library: Addresses Delivered at the Opening of the Exhibition of Mr. George T. Keating's Conrad Collection in the Sterling Memorial Library, 20 April 1938; with a Check List of Conrad Items Supplementary to Mr. Keating's Published Catalogue. Yale University Library, 1938.

"This volume is an issue of The Yale University Library Gazette, (volume 13, number 1, July 1938). It contains the following essays: William McFee, 'Conrad after Fourteen Years'; John Archer Gee, 'The Conrad Memorial Library of Mr. George T. Keating'; and James T. Babb, 'A Check List of the Additions to A Conrad Memorial Library, 1929-1938.'"

     J. Edward Mason. Joseph Conrad. A. Wheaton & Co., 1938.

     Ernest Crankshaw. Joseph Conrad: Some Aspects of the Art of the Novel. John Lane, 1936.

     Jessie Conrad. Joseph Conrad and His Circle. E. P. Dutton & Co., 1935.

     Frank W. Cushwa. An Introduction to Conrad. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1933.

     Jesse Conrad. Did Joseph Conrad Return as a Spirit?. International Mark Twain Society, 1932.

     Wm. Wallace Bancroft. Joseph Conrad: His Philosophy of Life. Stratford, 1931.

"The author discusses the extent to which Conrad's philosophy of life was revealed through his writings. It is interesting as well as significant that Conrad, who regarded philosophy as a 'web of illusions' should in his novels. This book represents the effort to reveal the central principle of the novels of Joseph Conrad, especially from the nucleus of such works as discover it, and to permit these tales from his gifted pen to amplify his complex and ununified system. Conrad is an artist, and, for that reason, it is difficult to do justice to him by separating his story-material from the philosophy implied. His novels do not illustrate separately the various aspects of his central theme, nor does any one story portray in complete form a single aspect of it. The difficulty, therefore, of a work of this kind, is simply one of method. The purpose of this volume is to allow Conrad to speak for himself through the medium that he selected for the expression of his purpose. There is no attempt made here to superpose upon his view of life one that is alien to his own. It were easier to classify one's own impression--but that would be sure to violate the principle of justice somewhere. The following argument is not an exact classification. The overlapping in point of theme prohibits such. Rather, it is an attempt to present in a logical form the degrees of emphasis, and to outline these in a manner that may serve to interpret the whole."

     R. L. Megroz. Joseph Conrad's Mind and Method: A Study of Personality in Art. Faber & Faber, 1931.

     Arthur J. Price. An Appreciation of Joseph Conrad. Simpkin, Marshall, [1931].

"This book professes to be no more than an introduction to a very great subject. Its object is to examine some of the fundamental elements of Conrad's excellence. Price analyzes some of the elements of Conrad's craftsmanship and attempts to reveal the power and originality of Conrad and the sincerity of his passion.  Price attempts to capture something of the secret genius of Conrad and the moods in which it most clearly manifested itself. Price also considers Conrad's narrative method with its hesitations in the development of the them and occasional complications in his works. This book is meant to provide a guide and companion to the study of Conrad's works."

     John Galsworthy. Two Essays on Conrad. [Ebbert & Richardson], 1930.

     Liam O'Flaherty. Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation. E. Lahr, [1930].

"The author presents his views on Conrad. Especially treats Conrad's romanticism and Conrad's 'God of the British Empire.'"

     Gustav Morf. The Polish Heritage of Joseph Conrad. Sampson Low, Marston & Co., [1930].

"A commentary on the personal side of Conrad's art, on its spiritual sources, and on the precise autobiographic elements in his novels. The author has an intimate knowledge of Conrad's work, of his family history, and of all the biographical details. He has availed himself, moreover, of a certain amount of new material, of which the most important part consists of about seventy letters written to Conrad by his uncle Tadeusz."

     George T. Keating, ed. A Conrad Memorial Library: The Collection of George T. Keating. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1929.

"This book contains descriptions of the Keating collection of early editions, manuscripts, typescripts, and so forth. There is an entry for Conrad's various books with a brief discussion of the book, descriptions of the copies, facsimiles of original title pages, manuscript pages, typescript pages, and letters. Introductions written by such authors as Hugh Clifford, Ford Madox Ford, Arthur Symons, Hugh Walpole, Richard Curle, Jesse Conrad, G. Jean-Aubry, John Galsworthy, and Edward Garnett."

     Richard Curle. The Last Twelve Years of Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928.

     Richard Curle, ed. Letters: Joseph Conrad to Richard Curle. Crosby Gaige, 1928.

     Edward Garnett, ed. Letters from Joseph Conrad, 1895 to 1924. Bobbs-Merrill, 1928. 

     Thomas James Wise, ed. A Conrad Library: A Catalogue of Printed Books, Manuscripts and Autograph Letters by Joseph Conrad (Teodor Josef Konrad Korzeniowski). Printed for Private Circulation, 1928.

     Sir Hugh Clifford. A Talk on Joseph Conrad and His Work. The English Association, Ceylon Branch, 1927.

"A lecture delivered to the Ceylon branch of the English Association in 1927."

     G. Jean-Aubry. Joseph Conrad: Life and Letters. 2 vols. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1927.

     Jesse Conrad, ed. Joseph Conrad's Letters to His Wife. Privately Printed, 1927.

     Jessie Conrad. Joseph Conrad as I Knew Him. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926.

     Joseph Conrad: Including an Approach to His Writings, A Biographical Sketch, A Brief Survey of His Works, and a Bibliography. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1926.

"A brief introduction to Conrad's life and works, meant to advertise Doubleday's Collected Edition of Conrad's works.  This pamphlet is illustrated with drawings and photographs and includes 'Introduction: Joseph Conrad--His Life and Works'; 'The Approach to Joseph Conrad,' which briefly discusses Conrad's works, particularly 'Youth,' Victory, 'Typhoon,' The Rover, and A Personal Record; 'Joseph Conrad: A Sketch,' a brief biography of Conrad'; 'The History of Joseph Conrad's Books' by Richard Curle; and 'Joseph Conrad: A Bibliography,' a bibliography of primary sources."

     G. Jean-Aubry. Joseph Conrad in the Congo. Little, Brown and Co., 1926.

"This is a description of Conrad's African travels and includes excerpts from his correspondence of the time."

     R. L. Megroz. A Talk with Joseph Conrad and a Criticism of His Mind and Method. Elkin Mathews, 1926.

     Elbridge L. Adams. Joseph Conrad: The Man / John Sheridan Zelie A Burial in Kent. William Edwin Rudge, 1925.

"The longer of the two articles which make up this book was written with the thought that the public should know more of the human side of an author who was fast becoming its literary idol, but it was not published without Conrad's consent. Fearful of saying anything that might offend Conrad's sensitive nature and thus perhaps bring to ruin a happy friend ship, Adams took the precaution of sending him the manuscript with the request that he should dispose, delete, or even destroy, as it might please him. Originally published in a limited edition, this volume also includes 'A Burial in Kent' by John Sheridan Zelie together with some bibliographical notes."

      Arthur Symons. Notes on Joseph Conrad, with Some Unpublished Letters. Meyers & Co., 1925.

     Joseph Conrad: A Sketch with a Bibliography, Illustrated with Many Drawings by Edw. A. Wilson. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1924.

"This pamphlet is a short illustrated survey of Conrad's life with a chronological bibliography of Conrad's works."

    Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad: The History of His Books. J. M. Dent & Sons, 1924.

"Influenced by Conrad's Author's Notes to his books, in this pamphlet, Curle provides background information about Conrad's books through Notes on Life and Letters."

     Ford Madox Ford. Joseph Conrad: A Personal Remembrance. Little, Brown and Co., 1924.

     Ernst Bendz. Joseph Conrad: An Appreciation. N. J. Gumpert, 1923.

"This book does not aim at being either comprehensive or exhaustive. It was written simply with a view to chronicle the phases of an intellectual experience and to justify an estimate founded on nothing more pretentious than a feeling of deep admiration and a sense of temperamental affinity with Conrad's works. This study addresses itself chiefly to readers already familiar with Conrad's writings, who will be pleased, perhaps, to find in it some echoes of their own past emotions."

     Christopher Morley. Conrad and the Reporters. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1923.

     Ruth M. Stauffer. Joseph Conrad: His Romantic-Realism. The Four Seas Company, 1922.

"The author bases her study on the following observation of Richard Curle, Conrad's official biographer: 'The spirit of his work is realistic in a rare and curious manner, for it is a realism which includes romance as one of its chief assets.'"

     J. G. Sutherland. At Sea with Joseph Conrad. Grant Richards, 1922.

"Captain Sutherland tells the story of Joseph Conrad's trip with him on the brigantine H. M. S. Ready, a Q-boat and the first sailing vessel commissioned in the Royal Navy in World War I. Includes much naval lore."

     Thomas J. Wise. A Bibliography of the Writings of Joseph Conrad (1895-1921). 2nd ed., rev. and enl. Printed for Private Circulation, 1921.

"The second (and revised) edition of Thomas J. Wise's only bibliography of a living writer. It was based on his own excellent collection of books and manuscripts of Conrad and on that of Richard Cure, friend of Conrad and Wise. This revised edition has 125 pages of text as against the 107 of the first edition (1920) and 29 facsimiles of title pages and MSS as against 21. One more work Notes on Life and Letters (1921) was added to the collations and notes of a variant of A Set of Six and a forged title page."

     Hugh Walpole. Joseph Conrad. Nisbet & Co., [1916].

"Reconstructs a brief but cogent synthesis of Conrad the man-of-action and Conrad the man-of-letters."

     James Huneker, E. F. Saxton, and Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Page & Co., [1915].

"This pamphlet contains maps, photographs, and brief essays.  It is a revision of the earlier pamphlet by the same title that was published probably in 1913. The essays include Huneker's 'Joseph Conrad: A Pen Portrait,' Saxton's 'The Romantic Story of Joseph Conrad,' 'Biographical and Autobiographical' (condensed from Richard Curle's Joseph Conrad: A Study), and 'Novels and Stories' (condensed from Richard Curle's Joseph Conrad: A Study).' This pamphlet also includes a list of books by Conrad up to Victory and selections from reviews of Conrad's works."

     Wilson Follett. Joseph Conrad: A Short Study of His Intellectual and Emotional Attitude toward His Work and of the Chief Characters of His Novels. Doubleday, Page & Co., 1915.

"Follett undertakes an account in general terms of Conrad's intellectual and emotional attitude toward his work and of the most striking characteristics of that work. Other matters of importance--his life and its relation to his work, his growth in proficiency, stage by stage, his special contribution to the body and permanency of the short story as a form, his style in the more limited sense of verbal fitness and phrasal beauty, his humor (most often grim, ironical, or sardonic, but once at least, in 'The Duel,' airily frivolous), his treatment of character and of places and things, his assimilation of French and Russian influences, and his probable importance to modern realism--Follett does not discuss. He attempts to deal, if at the lower levels, with something more than a negligible part of the whole truth."

     Richard Curle. Joseph Conrad: A Study. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1914.

"Curle remarks that the facts in this book relative to Conrad have Conrad's authorization, the criticism is entirely Curle's. In this book, he considers a number of points, such as the individual structure of Conrad's books, the general sense of form, the realism and romance of Conrad's art, his feeling for tragedy, and his philosophy. Curle dislikes the habit of writing gravely about the philosophy of novelists, suggesting that to do so is to wreck the meaning of a work of art, although it is true enough that art divorced from ideas soon wears very thin. A novelist's philosophy, as such, does not concern literary criticism, although his personality, which is largely the accumulative effect of his outlook, does. Curle's object in writing this book is also to arouse interest in the greatest and least known of Conrad's novels, in the marvelous Nostromo. This study of Conrad has been written both for the students of his work and for those who know nothing about it. But throughout Curle aims at real criticism and not mere statement or, in fact, mere rhetoric."

     James Huneker and Alfred A. Knopf. Joseph Conrad. Doubleday, Page & Co., [1913].

"This pamphlet contains maps, photographs, and brief essays.  The essays include Huneker's 'Joseph Conrad: A Pen Portrait' and Knopf''s 'Joseph Conrad: The Romance of His Life and of His Books.' The pamphlet also contains a bibliography of primary works through 1912 with a brief publication history of each, as well as various photographs of Conrad and his family."


Annotations are taken almost exclusively from dust jacket materials or prefaces or similar materials, with minimal editing.

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